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Publikation

Raschke, A.; Ibañez, C.; Ullrich, K. K.; Anwer, M. U.; Becker, S.; Glöckner, A.; Trenner, J.; Denk, K.; Saal, B.; Sun, X.; Ni, M.; Davis, S. J.; Delker, C.; Quint, M.; Natural variants of ELF3 affect thermomorphogenesis by transcriptionally modulating PIF4-dependent auxin response genes BMC Plant Biol. 15, 197, (2015) DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0566-6

BackgroundPerception and transduction of temperature changes result in altered growth enabling plants to adapt to increased ambient temperature. While PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been identified as a major ambient temperature signaling hub, its upstream regulation seems complex and is poorly understood. Here, we exploited natural variation for thermo-responsive growth in Arabidopsis thaliana using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis.ResultsWe identified GIRAFFE2.1, a major QTL explaining ~18 % of the phenotypic variation for temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in the Bay-0 x Sha recombinant inbred line population. Transgenic complementation demonstrated that allelic variation in the circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is underlying this QTL. The source of variation could be allocated to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ELF3 coding region, resulting in differential expression of PIF4 and its target genes, likely causing the observed natural variation in thermo-responsive growth.ConclusionsIn combination with other recent studies, this work establishes the role of ELF3 in the ambient temperature signaling network. Natural variation of ELF3-mediated gating of PIF4 expression during nightly growing periods seems to be affected by a coding sequence quantitative trait nucleotide that confers a selective advantage in certain environments. In addition, natural ELF3 alleles seem to differentially integrate temperature and photoperiod information to induce architectural changes. Thus, ELF3 emerges as an essential coordinator of growth and development in response to diverse environmental cues and implicates ELF3 as an important target of adaptation.
Publikation

Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.; Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture PLOS ONE 10, e0136785, (2015) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136785

Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis.
Publikation

Sharma, V. K.; Monostori, T.; Göbel, C.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R. R.; Hause, B.; Schulze, J.; Transgenic barley plants overexpressing a 13-lipoxygenase to modify oxylipin signature Phytochemistry 67, 264-276, (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.11.009

Three chimeric gene constructs were designed comprising the full length cDNA of a lipoxygenase (LOX) from barley (LOX2:Hv:1) including its chloroplast targeting sequence (cTP) under control of either (1) CaMV35S- or (2) polyubiquitin-1-promoter, whereas the third plasmid contains 35S promoter and the cDNA without cTP. Transgenic barley plants overexpressing LOX2:Hv:1 were generated by biolistics of scutella from immature embryos. Transformation frequency for 35S::LOX with or without cTP was in a range known for barley particle bombardment, whereas for Ubi::cTP-LOX no transgenic plants were detected. In general, a high number of green plantlets selected on bialaphos became yellow and finally died either in vitro or after potting. All transgenic plants obtained were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild type plants and all of them set seeds. The corresponding protein (LOX-100) in transgenic T0 and T1 plants accumulated constitutively to similar levels as in the jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME)-treated wild type plants. Moreover, LOX-100 was clearly detectable immunocytochemically within the chloroplasts of untreated T0 plants containing the LOX-100-cDNA with the chloroplast target sequence. In contrast, an exclusive localization of LOX-100 in the cytoplasm was detectable when the target sequence was removed. In comparison to sorbitol-treated wild type leaves, analysis of oxylipin profiles in T2 progenies showed higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) for those lines that displayed elevated levels of LOX-100 in the chloroplasts and for those lines that harboured LOX-100 in the cytoplasm, respectively. The studies demonstrate for the first time the constitutive overexpression of a cDNA coding for a 13-LOX in a monocotyledonous species and indicate a link between the occurrence of LOX-100 and senescence.
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