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Chutia, R.; Abel, S.; Ziegler, J.; Iron and Phosphate Deficiency Regulators Concertedly Control Coumarin Profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots During Iron, Phosphate, and Combined Deficiencies Front. Plant Sci. 10, 113, (2019) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00113

Plants face varying nutrient conditions, to which they have to adapt to. Adaptive responses are nutrient-specific and strategies to ensure supply and homeostasis for one nutrient might be opposite to another one, as shown for phosphate (Pi) and iron (Fe) deficiency responses, where many genes are regulated in an opposing manner. This was also observed on the metabolite levels. Whereas root and exudate levels of catechol-type coumarins, phenylpropanoid-derived 2-benzopyranones, which facilitate Fe acquisition, are elevated after Fe deficiency, they are decreased after Pi deficiency. Exposing plants to combined Pi and Fe deficiency showed that the generation of coumarin profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by Pi deficiency considerably depends on the availability of Fe. Similarly, the effect of Fe deficiency on coumarin profiles is different at low compared to high Pi availability. These findings suggest a fine-tuning of coumarin profiles, which depends on Fe and Pi availability. T-DNA insertion lines exhibiting aberrant expression of genes involved in the regulation of Pi starvation responses (PHO1, PHR1, bHLH32, PHL1, SPX1) and Fe starvation responses (BRUTUS, PYE, bHLH104, FIT) were used to analyze the regulation of the generation of coumarin profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by Pi, Fe, and combined Pi and Fe deficiency. The analysis revealed a role of several Fe-deficiency response regulators in the regulation of Fe and of Pi deficiency-induced coumarin profiles as well as for Pi deficiency response regulators in the regulation of Pi and of Fe deficiency-induced coumarin profiles. Additionally, the regulation of Fe deficiency-induced coumarin profiles by Fe deficiency response regulators is influenced by Pi availability. Conversely, regulation of Pi deficiency-induced coumarin profiles by Pi deficiency response regulators is modified by Fe availability.

Abdala, G.; Castro, G.; Miersch, O.; Pearce, D.; Changes in jasmonate and gibberellin levels during development of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) Plant Growth Regul. 36, 121-126, (2002) DOI: 10.1023/A:1015065011536

Among the multiple environmental signals and hormonal factors regulatingpotato plant morphogenesis and controlling tuber induction, jasmonates (JAs)andgibberellins (GAs) are important components of the signalling pathways in theseprocesses. In the present study, with Solanum tuberosum L.cv. Spunta, we followed the endogenous changes of JAs and GAs during thedevelopmental stages of soil-grown potato plants. Foliage at initial growthshowed the highest jasmonic acid (JA) concentration, while in roots the highestcontent was observed in the stage of tuber set. In stolons at the developmentalstage of tuber set an important increase of JA was found; however, in tubersthere was no change in this compound during tuber set and subsequent growth.Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) in foliage did not show the same pattern as JA; Me-JAdecreased during the developmental stages in which it was monitored, meanwhileJA increased during those stages. The highest total amount of JAs expressed asJA + Me-JA was found at tuber set. A very important peak ofJA in roots was coincident with that observed in stolons at tuber set. Also, aprogressive increase of this compound in roots was shown during the transitionof stolons to tubers. Of the two GAs monitored, gibberellic acid(GA3) was the most abundant in all the organs. While GA1and GA3 were also found in stolons at the time of tuber set, noothermeasurements of GAs were obtained for stolons at previous stages of plantdevelopment. Our results indicate that high levels of JA and GAs are found indifferent tissues, especially during stolon growth and tuber set.
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