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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Chutia, R.; Abel, S.; Ziegler, J. Iron and Phosphate Deficiency Regulators Concertedly Control Coumarin Profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots During Iron, Phosphate, and Combined Deficiencies Front Plant Sci 10, 113, (2019) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00113

Plants face varying nutrient conditions, to which they have to adapt to. Adaptive responses are nutrient-specific and strategies to ensure supply and homeostasis for one nutrient might be opposite to another one, as shown for phosphate (Pi) and iron (Fe) deficiency responses, where many genes are regulated in an opposing manner. This was also observed on the metabolite levels. Whereas root and exudate levels of catechol-type coumarins, phenylpropanoid-derived 2-benzopyranones, which facilitate Fe acquisition, are elevated after Fe deficiency, they are decreased after Pi deficiency. Exposing plants to combined Pi and Fe deficiency showed that the generation of coumarin profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by Pi deficiency considerably depends on the availability of Fe. Similarly, the effect of Fe deficiency on coumarin profiles is different at low compared to high Pi availability. These findings suggest a fine-tuning of coumarin profiles, which depends on Fe and Pi availability. T-DNA insertion lines exhibiting aberrant expression of genes involved in the regulation of Pi starvation responses (PHO1, PHR1, bHLH32, PHL1, SPX1) and Fe starvation responses (BRUTUS, PYE, bHLH104, FIT) were used to analyze the regulation of the generation of coumarin profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana roots by Pi, Fe, and combined Pi and Fe deficiency. The analysis revealed a role of several Fe-deficiency response regulators in the regulation of Fe and of Pi deficiency-induced coumarin profiles as well as for Pi deficiency response regulators in the regulation of Pi and of Fe deficiency-induced coumarin profiles. Additionally, the regulation of Fe deficiency-induced coumarin profiles by Fe deficiency response regulators is influenced by Pi availability. Conversely, regulation of Pi deficiency-induced coumarin profiles by Pi deficiency response regulators is modified by Fe availability.
Publikation

Schulze, A.; Zimmer, M.; Mielke, S.; Stellmach, H.; Melnyk, C. W.; Hause, B.; Gasperini, D. Shoot-to-root translocation of the jasmonate precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) coordinates plant growth responses following tissue damage bioRxiv (2019) DOI: 10.1101/517193

Multicellular organisms rely upon the movement of signaling molecules across cells, tissues and organs to communicate among distal sites. In plants, herbivorous insects, necrotrophic pathogens and mechanical wounding stimulate the activation of the jasmonate (JA) pathway, which in turn triggers the transcriptional changes necessary to protect plants against those challenges, often at the expense of growth. Although previous evidence indicated that JA species can translocate from damaged into distal sites, the identity of the mobile compound(s), the tissues through which they translocate and the consequences of their relocation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that endogenous JA species generated after shoot injury translocate to unharmed roots via the phloem vascular tissue in Arabidopsis thaliana. By wounding wild-type shoots of chimeric plants and by quantifying the relocating compounds from their JA-deficient roots, we uncovered that the JA-Ile precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) is a mobile JA species. Our data also showed that OPDA is a primary mobile compound relocating to roots where, upon conversion to the bioactive hormone, it induces JA-mediated gene expression and root growth inhibition. Collectively, our findings reveal the existence of long-distance transport of endogenous OPDA which serves as a communication molecule to coordinate shoot-to-root responses, and highlight the importance of a controlled distribution of JA species among organs during plant stress acclimation.
Publikation

Schulze, A.; Zimmer, M.; Mielke, S.; Stellmach, H.; Melnyk, C. W.; Hause, B.; Gasperini, D. Wound-Induced Shoot-to-Root Relocation of JA-Ile Precursors Coordinates Arabidopsis Growth Mol Plant 12, 1383-1394, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2019.05.013

Multicellular organisms rely on the movement of signaling molecules across cells, tissues, and organs to communicate among distal sites. In plants, localized leaf damage activates jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent transcriptional reprogramming in both harmed and unharmed tissues. Although it has been indicated that JA species can translocate from damaged into distal sites, the identity of the mobile compound(s), the tissues through which they translocate, and the effect of their relocation remain unknown. Here, we found that following shoot wounding, the relocation of endogenous jasmonates through the phloem is essential to initiate JA signaling and stunt growth in unharmed roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. By employing grafting experiments and hormone profiling, we uncovered that the hormone precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and its derivatives, but not the bioactive JA-Ile conjugate, translocate from wounded shoots into undamaged roots. Upon root relocation, the mobile precursors cooperatively regulated JA responses through their conversion into JA-Ile and JA signaling activation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the existence of long-distance translocation of endogenous OPDA and its derivatives, which serve as mobile molecules to coordinate shoot-to-root responses, and highlight the importance of a controlled redistribution of hormone precursors among organs during plant stress acclimation.
Publikationen in Druck

Dallery, J.-F.; Zimmer, M.; Halder, V.; Suliman, M.; Pigné, S.; Le Goff, G.; Gianniou, D. D.; Trougakos, I. P.; Ouazzani, J.; Gasperini, D.; O’Connell, R. J. Inhibition of jasmonate-mediated plant defences by the fungal metabolite higginsianin B bioRxiv (2019) DOI: 10.1101/651562

Infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum is characterised by an early symptomless biotrophic phase followed by a destructive necrotrophic phase. The fungal genome contains 77 secondary metabolism-related biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), and their expression during the infection process is tightly regulated. Deleting CclA, a chromatin regulator involved in repression of some BGCs through H3K4 trimethylation, allowed overproduction of 3 families of terpenoids and isolation of 12 different molecules. These natural products were tested in combination with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an elicitor of jasmonate responses, for their capacity to alter defence gene induction in Arabidopsis. Higginsianin B inhibited MeJA-triggered expression of the defence reporter VSP1p:GUS, suggesting it may block bioactive JA-Ile synthesis or signalling in planta. Using the JA-Ile sensor Jas9-VENUS, we found that higginsianin B, but not three other structurally-related molecules, suppressed JA-Ile signalling by preventing degradation of JAZ proteins, the repressors of JA responses. Higginsianin B likely blocks the 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins because it inhibited chymotrypsin- and caspase-like protease activities. The inhibition of target degradation by higginsianin B also extended to auxin signalling, as higginsianin B treatment reduced IAA-dependent expression of DR5p:GUS. Overall, our data indicate that specific fungal secondary metabolites can act similarly to protein effectors to subvert plant immune and developmental responses.
Publikationen in Druck

Mielke, S.; Gasperini, D. Interplay between Plant Cell Walls and Jasmonate Production Plant Cell Physiol (2019) DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcz119

Plant cell walls are sophisticated carbohydrate-rich structures representing the immediate contact surface with the extracellular environment, often serving as the first barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. Notably, a variety of perturbations in plant cell walls result in upregulated jasmonate (JA) production, a phytohormone with essential roles in defense and growth responses. Hence, cell wall-derived signals can initiate intracellular JA-mediated responses and the elucidation of the underlying signaling pathways could provide novel insights into cell wall maintenance and remodeling, as well as advance our understanding on how is JA biosynthesis initiated. This Mini Review will describe current knowledge about cell wall-derived damage signals and their effects on JA biosynthesis, as well as provide future perspectives.
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