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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Farmer, E. E.; Gasperini, D.; Acosta, I. F. The squeeze cell hypothesis for the activation of jasmonate synthesis in response to wounding New Phytol 204, 282-288, (2014) DOI: 10.1111/nph.12897

Jasmonates are lipid mediators that control defence gene expression in response to wounding and other environmental stresses. These small molecules can accumulate at distances up to several cm from sites of damage and this is likely to involve cell‐to‐cell jasmonate transport. Also, and independently of jasmonate synthesis, transport and perception, different long‐distance wound signals that stimulate distal jasmonate synthesis are propagated at apparent speeds of several cm min–1 to tissues distal to wounds in a mechanism that involves clade 3 GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR‐LIKE (GLR) genes. A search for jasmonate synthesis enzymes that might decode these signals revealed LOX6, a lipoxygenase that is necessary for much of the rapid accumulation of jasmonic acid at sites distal to wounds. Intriguingly, the LOX6 promoter is expressed in a distinct niche of cells that are adjacent to mature xylem vessels, a location that would make these contact cells sensitive to the release of xylem water column tension upon wounding. We propose a model in which rapid axial changes in xylem hydrostatic pressure caused by wounding travel through the vasculature and lead to slower, radially dispersed pressure changes that act in a clade 3 GLR‐dependent mechanism to promote distal jasmonate synthesis.
Publikation

Antolín-Llovera, M.; Petutsching, E. K.; Ried, M. K.; Lipka, V.; Nürnberger, T.; Robatzek, S.; Parniske, M. Knowing your friends and foes - plant receptor-like kinases as initiators of symbiosis or defence New Phytol 204, 791-802, (2014) DOI: 10.1111/nph.13117

The decision between defence and symbiosis signalling in plants involves alternative and modular plasma membrane‐localized receptor complexes. A critical step in their activation is ligand‐induced homo‐ or hetero‐oligomerization of leucine‐rich repeat (LRR)‐ and/or lysin motif (LysM) receptor‐like kinases (RLKs). In defence signalling, receptor complexes form upon binding of pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including the bacterial flagellin‐derived peptide flg22, or chitin. Similar mechanisms are likely to operate during the perception of microbial symbiont‐derived (lipo)‐chitooligosaccharides. The structurally related chitin‐oligomer ligands chitooctaose and chitotetraose trigger defence and symbiosis signalling, respectively, and their discrimination involves closely related, if not identical, LysM‐RLKs. This illustrates the demand for and the challenges imposed on decision mechanisms that ensure appropriate signal initiation. Appropriate signalling critically depends on abundance and localization of RLKs at the cell surface. This is regulated by internalization, which also provides a mechanism for the removal of activated signalling RLKs. Abundance of the malectin‐like domain (MLD)‐LRR‐RLK Symbiosis Receptor‐like Kinase (SYMRK) is additionally controlled by cleavage of its modular ectodomain, which generates a truncated and rapidly degraded RLK fragment. This review explores LRR‐ and LysM‐mediated signalling, the involvement of MLD‐LRR‐RLKs in symbiosis and defence, and the role of endocytosis in RLK function.
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