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Publikationen - Stress- und Entwicklungsbiologie

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Publikation

Peters, K.; Worrich, A.; Weinhold, A.; Alka, O.; Balcke, G.; Birkemeyer, C.; Bruelheide, H.; Calf, O. W.; Dietz, S.; Dührkop, K.; Gaquerel, E.; Heinig, U.; Kücklich, M.; Macel, M.; Müller, C.; Poeschl, Y.; Pohnert, G.; Ristok, C.; Rodríguez, V. M.; Ruttkies, C.; Schuman, M.; Schweiger, R.; Shahaf, N.; Steinbeck, C.; Tortosa, M.; Treutler, H.; Ueberschaar, N.; Velasco, P.; Weiß, B. M.; Widdig, A.; Neumann, S.; van Dam, N. M. Current Challenges in Plant Eco-Metabolomics Int J Mol Sci 19, 1385, (2018) DOI: 10.3390/ijms19051385

The relatively new research discipline of Eco-Metabolomics is the application of metabolomics techniques to ecology with the aim to characterise biochemical interactions of organisms across different spatial and temporal scales. Metabolomics is an untargeted biochemical approach to measure many thousands of metabolites in different species, including plants and animals. Changes in metabolite concentrations can provide mechanistic evidence for biochemical processes that are relevant at ecological scales. These include physiological, phenotypic and morphological responses of plants and communities to environmental changes and also interactions with other organisms. Traditionally, research in biochemistry and ecology comes from two different directions and is performed at distinct spatiotemporal scales. Biochemical studies most often focus on intrinsic processes in individuals at physiological and cellular scales. Generally, they take a bottom-up approach scaling up cellular processes from spatiotemporally fine to coarser scales. Ecological studies usually focus on extrinsic processes acting upon organisms at population and community scales and typically study top-down and bottom-up processes in combination. Eco-Metabolomics is a transdisciplinary research discipline that links biochemistry and ecology and connects the distinct spatiotemporal scales. In this review, we focus on approaches to study chemical and biochemical interactions of plants at various ecological levels, mainly plant–organismal interactions, and discuss related examples from other domains. We present recent developments and highlight advancements in Eco-Metabolomics over the last decade from various angles. We further address the five key challenges: (1) complex experimental designs and large variation of metabolite profiles; (2) feature extraction; (3) metabolite identification; (4) statistical analyses; and (5) bioinformatics software tools and workflows. The presented solutions to these challenges will advance connecting the distinct spatiotemporal scales and bridging biochemistry and ecology
Publikation

Wirthmueller, L.; Asai, S.; Rallapalli, G.; Sklenar, J.; Fabro, G.; Kim, D. S.; Lintermann, R.; Jaspers, P.; Wrzaczek, M.; Kangasjärvi, J.; MacLean, D.; Menke, F. L. H.; Banfield, M. J.; Jones, J. D. G. Arabidopsis downy mildew effector HaRxL106 suppresses plant immunity by binding to RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 New Phytol 220, 232-248, (2018) DOI: 10.1111/nph.15277

The oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew disease on Arabidopsis. To colonize its host, Hpa translocates effector proteins that suppress plant immunity into infected host cells. Here, we investigate the relevance of the interaction between one of these effectors, HaRxL106, and Arabidopsis RADICAL‐INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1).We use pathogen infection assays as well as molecular and biochemical analyses to test the hypothesis that HaRxL106 manipulates RCD1 to attenuate transcriptional activation of defense genes.We report that HaRxL106 suppresses transcriptional activation of salicylic acid (SA)‐induced defense genes and alters plant growth responses to light. HaRxL106‐mediated suppression of immunity is abolished in RCD1 loss‐of‐function mutants. We report that RCD1‐type proteins are phosphorylated, and we identified Mut9‐like kinases (MLKs), which function as phosphoregulatory nodes at the level of photoreceptors, as RCD1‐interacting proteins. An mlk1,3,4 triple mutant exhibits stronger SA‐induced defense marker gene expression compared with wild‐type plants, suggesting that MLKs also affect transcriptional regulation of SA signaling.Based on the combined evidence, we hypothesize that nuclear RCD1/MLK complexes act as signaling nodes that integrate information from environmental cues and pathogen sensors, and that the Arabidopsis downy mildew pathogen targets RCD1 to prevent activation of plant immunity.
Publikation

Chen, C.; Masi, R. D.; Lintermann, R.; Wirthmueller, L. Nuclear Import of Arabidopsis Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 2 Is Mediated by Importin-α and a Nuclear Localization Sequence Located Between the Predicted SAP Domains Front Plant Sci 9, 1581, (2018) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01581

Proteins of the Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) family modify target proteins by covalent attachment of ADP-ribose moieties onto amino acid side chains. In Arabidopsis, PARP proteins contribute to repair of DNA lesions and modulate plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stressors. Arabidopsis PARP1 and PARP2 are nuclear proteins and given that their molecular weights exceed the diffusion limit of nuclear pore complexes, an active import mechanism into the nucleus is likely. Here we use confocal microscopy of fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis PARP2 and PARP2 deletion constructs in combination with site-directed mutagenesis to identify a nuclear localization sequence in PARP2 that is required for nuclear import. We report that in co-immunoprecipitation assays PARP2 interacts with several isoforms of the importin-α group of nuclear transport adapters and that PARP2 binding to IMPORTIN-α2 is mediated by the identified nuclear localization sequence. Our results demonstrate that PARP2 is a cargo protein of the canonical importin-α/β nuclear import pathway.
Publikation

Peters, K.; Gorzolka, K.; Bruelheide, H.; Neumann, S. Seasonal variation of secondary metabolites in nine different bryophytes Ecol Evol 8, 9105-9117, (2018) DOI: 10.1002/ece3.4361

Bryophytes occur in almost all land ecosystems and contribute to global biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem functioning, and influence vegetation dynamics. As growth and biochemistry of bryophytes are strongly dependent on the season, we analyzed metabolic variation across seasons with regard to ecological characteristics and phylogeny. Using bioinformatics methods, we present an integrative and reproducible approach to connect ecology with biochemistry. Nine different bryophyte species were collected in three composite samples in four seasons. Untargeted liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was performed to obtain metabolite profiles. Redundancy analysis, Pearson's correlation, Shannon diversity, and hierarchical clustering were used to determine relationships among species, seasons, ecological characteristics, and hierarchical clustering. Metabolite profiles of Marchantia polymorpha and Fissidens taxifolius which are species with ruderal life strategy (R‐selected) showed low seasonal variability, while the profiles of the pleurocarpous mosses and Grimmia pulvinata which have characteristics of a competitive strategy (C‐selected) were more variable. Polytrichum strictum and Plagiomnium undulatum had intermediary life strategies. Our study revealed strong species‐specific differences in metabolite profiles between the seasons. Life strategies, growth forms, and indicator values for light and soil were among the most important ecological predictors. We demonstrate that untargeted Eco‐Metabolomics provide useful biochemical insight that improves our understanding of fundamental ecological strategies.
Publikation

Zembek, P.; Danilecka, A.; Hoser, R.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Benicka, M.; Grech-Baran, M.; Rymaszewski, W.; Barymow-Filoniuk, I.; Morgiewicz, K.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Piechocki, M.; Poznanski, J.; Lee, J.; Hennig, J.; Krzymowska, M. Two Strategies of Pseudomonas syringae to Avoid Recognition of the HopQ1 Effector in Nicotiana Species Front Plant Sci 9, 978, (2018) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00978

Pseudomonas syringae employs a battery of type three secretion effectors to subvert plant immune responses. In turn, plants have developed receptors that recognize some of the bacterial effectors. Two strain-specific HopQ1 effector variants (for Hrp outer protein Q) from the pathovars phaseolicola 1448A (Pph) and tomato DC3000 (Pto) showed considerable differences in their ability to evoke disease symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, the variants differ by only six amino acids located mostly in the N-terminal disordered region of HopQ1. We found that the presence of serine 87 and leucine 91 renders PtoHopQ1 susceptible to N-terminal processing by plant proteases. Substitutions at these two positions did not strongly affect PtoHopQ1 virulence properties in a susceptible host but they reduced bacterial growth and accelerated onset of cell death in a resistant host, suggesting that N-terminal mutations rendered PtoHopQ1 susceptible to processing in planta and, thus, represent a mechanism of recognition avoidance. Furthermore, we found that co-expression of HopR1, another effector encoded within the same gene cluster masks HopQ1 recognition in a strain-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that HopQ1 is under high host-pathogen co-evolutionary selection pressure and P. syringae may have evolved differential effector processing or masking as two independent strategies to evade HopQ1 recognition, thus revealing another level of complexity in plant – microbe interactions.
Publikationen in Druck

Teh, O.-K.; Lee, C.-W.; Ditengou, F. A.; Klecker, T.; Furlan, G.; Zietz, M.; Hause, G.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Lee, J.; Ott, T.; Trujillo, M. Phosphorylation of the exocyst subunit Exo70B2 contributes to the regulation of its function BioRxiv (2018) DOI: 10.1101/266171

The exocyst is a conserved hetero-octameric complex mediating early tethering during exocytosis. Its Exo70 subunit plays a critical role as a spatiotemporal regulator by mediating numerous protein and lipid interactions. However, a molecular understanding of the exocyst function remains challenging. We show that Exo70B2 locates to dynamic foci at the plasma membrane and transits through a BFA-sensitive compartment, reflecting its canonical function in secretion. However, treatment with the salicylic acid (SA) defence hormone analogue Benzothiadiazole (BTH), or the immunogenic peptide flg22, induced Exo70B2 transport into the vacuole. We uncovered two ATG8-interacting motifs (AIMs) located in the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of Exo70B2 that mediate its recruitment into the vacuole. Moreover, we also show that Exo70B2 is phosphorylated near the AIMs and mimicking phosphorylation enhanced ATG8 interaction. Finally, Exo70B2 phosphonull lines were hypersensitive to BTH and more resistant to avirulent bacteria which induce SA production. Our results suggests a molecular mechanism in which phosphorylation of Exo70B2 by MPK3 functions in a feed-back system linking cellular signalling to the secretory pathway.
Publikation

Sopeña‐Torres, S.; Jordá, L.; Sánchez‐Rodríguez, C.; Miedes, E.; Escudero, V.; Swami, S.; López, G.; Piślewska‐Bednarek, M.; Lassowskat, I.; Lee, J.; Gu, Y.; Haigis, S.; Alexander, D.; Pattathil, S.; Muñoz‐Barrios, A.; Bednarek, P.; Somerville, S.; Schulze‐Lefert, P.; Hahn, M. G.; Scheel, D.; Molina, A. YODA MAP3K kinase regulates plant immune responses conferring broad‐spectrum disease resistance New Phytol 218, 661-680, (2018) DOI: 10.1111/nph.15007

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Bücher und Buchkapitel

Knogge, W. Diseases affecting barley: scald (Ed. Oliver R). Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science 183-215, (2018) ISBN: 9781786762160 DOI: 10.19103/as.2018.0039.10

Scald (leaf blotch), caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, is one of the major diseases of barley worldwide. Typical disease symptoms consist of necrotic areas on the leaf blades. Yield losses are manifested as reduced kernel quality, size and number per ear. This chapter reviews the origins, epidemiology and other characteristic features of scald, and considers the agricultural consequences of the pathogen’s biology. It then considers resistance breeding programmes in which more than a dozen major resistance genes as well as quantitative trait loci have been identified, and discusses strategies to minimize the damage caused by the disease comprising agricultural practices and different fungicides.
Publikation

Herz, K.; Dietz, S.; Gorzolka, K.; Haider, S.; Jandt, U.; Scheel, D.; Bruelheide, H. Linking root exudates to functional plant traits PLOS ONE 13, e0204128, (2018) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204128

Primary and secondary metabolites exuded by plant roots have mainly been studied under laboratory conditions, while knowledge of root exudate patterns of plants growing in natural communities is very limited. Focusing on ten common European grassland plant species, we asked to which degree exuded metabolite compositions are specific to species or growth forms (forbs and grasses), depend on environments and local neighbourhoods, and reflect traditional plant functional traits. Root exudates were collected under field conditions and analysed using a non-targeted gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. In total, we annotated 153 compounds of which 36 were identified by structure and name as metabolites mainly derived from the primary metabolism. Here we show by using variance partitioning, that the composition of exuded polar metabolites was mostly explained by plot identity, followed by plant species identity while plant species composition of the local neighbourhood played no role. Total and root dry biomass explained the largest proportion of variance in exudate composition, with additional variance explained by traditional plant traits. Although the exudate composition was quite similar between the two growth forms, we found some metabolites that occurred only in one of the two growth forms. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of measuring polar exudates under non-sterile field conditions by mass spectrometry, which opens new avenues of research for functional plant ecology.
Publikation

Furlan, G.; Nakagami, H.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Jiang, X.; Majovsky, P.; Kowarschik, K.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Lee, J.; Trujillo, M. Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response Plant Cell 29, 726-745, (2017) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.16.00654

Crosstalk between post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and phosphorylation play key roles in controlling the duration and intensity of signalling events to ensure cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of negative feedback loops remain poorly understood. Here we uncover a pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by which a negative feedback loop involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB22 that dampens the immune response is triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 (MPK3), best known for its function in the activation of signalling. PUB22's stability is controlled by MPK3-mediated phosphorylation of residues localized in and adjacent to the E2 docking domain. We show that phosphorylation is critical for stabilization by inhibiting PUB22 oligomerization and thus autoubiquitination. The activity switch allows PUB22 to dampen the immune response. This regulatory mechanism also suggests that autoubiquitination, which is inherent to most single unit E3s in vitro, can function as a self-regulatory mechanism in vivo. 
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