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Otto, A.; Porzel, A.; Schmidt, J.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Arnold, N Penarines A-F, (nor-) sesquiterpene carboxylic acids from Hygrophorus penarius (Basidiomycetes). Phytochemistry 108, 229-233, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.09.005

Five sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (1–5) and one nor-sesquiterpene carboxylic acid (6) of the very rare ventricosane type, named penarines A–F, were isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus penarius (Hygrophoraceae). This is the first report of (nor)-sesquiterpenes isolated from basidiocarps of the family Hygrophoraceae. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, ROESY) NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry studies. Additionally, the only known member of this rare type of sesquiterpenes, ventricos-7(13)-ene (7), could be identified via headspace GC–MS analysis in a fruiting body of H. penarius. Compounds 1–6 were devoid of remarkable antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and the colon cancer cell line HT-29 showing no significant cytotoxic activity.
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