TY - JOUR ID - 2183 TI - A Bypass in Jasmonate Biosynthesis – the OPR3-independent Formation JO - Trends Plant Sci PY - 2018 SP - 276-279 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 23 UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360138518300426 DO - 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.02.011 AB - For the first time in 25 years, a new pathway for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) has been identified. JA production takes place via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) including reduction by OPDA reductases (OPRs). A loss-of-function allele, opr3-3, revealed an OPR3-independent pathway converting OPDA to JA. A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2182 TI - Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinins in tobacco: organ-specific changes in cytokinin homeostasis. JO - J Exp Bot PY - 2018 SP - 441-454 AU - Gelová, Z. AU - ten Hoopen, P. AU - Novák, O. AU - Motyka, V. AU - Pernisová, M. AU - Dabravolski, S. AU - Didi, V. AU - Tillack, I. AU - Oklešťková, J. AU - Strnad, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Haruštiaková, D. AU - Conrad, U. AU - Janda, L. AU - Hejátko, J. VL - 69 UR - https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article/69/3/441/4773903?searchresult=1 DO - 10.1093/jxb/erx426 AB - Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones with an organ-specific mode of action. Although the mechanisms controlling the complex networks of cytokinin metabolism are partially known, the role of individual cytokinin types in the maintenance of cytokinin homeostasis remains unclear. Utilizing the overproduction of single-chain Fv antibodies selected for their ability to bind trans-zeatin riboside and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, we post-synthetically modulated cytokinin ribosides, the proposed transport forms of cytokinins. We observed asymmetric activity of cytokinin biosynthetic genes and cytokinin distribution in wild-type tobacco seedlings with higher cytokinin abundance in the root than in the shoot. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinin ribosides further enhanced the relative cytokinin abundance in the roots and induced cytokinin-related phenotypes in an organ-specific manner. The activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase in the roots was strongly up-regulated in response to antibody-mediated formation of the cytokinin pool in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, we only detected a slight decrease in the root cytokinin levels. In contrast, a significant decrease of cytokinins occurred in the shoot. We suggest the roots as the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis in tobacco seedlings. Conversely, cytokinin levels in the shoot seem to depend largely on long-range transport of cytokinin ribosides from the root and their subsequent metabolic activation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2187 TI - Strigolactone Levels in Dicot Roots Are Determined by an Ancestral Symbiosis-Regulated Clade of the PHYTOENE SYNTHASE Gene Family JO - Front Plant Sci PY - 2018 SP - 255 AU - Stauder, R. AU - Welsch, R. AU - Camagna, M. AU - Kohlen, W. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Walter, M. H. VL - 9 UR - https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.00255/full DO - 10.3389/fpls.2018.00255 AB - Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ. Increased ABA levels upon abiotic stress in Poaceae roots are known to be supported by a particular isoform of phytoene synthase (PSY), catalyzing the rate-limiting step in carotenogenesis. Here we report on novel PSY3 isogenes from Medicago truncatula (MtPSY3) and Solanum lycopersicum (SlPSY3) strongly expressed exclusively upon root interaction with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and moderately in response to phosphate starvation. They belong to a widespread clade of conserved PSYs restricted to dicots (dPSY3) distinct from the Poaceae-PSY3s involved in ABA formation. An ancient origin of dPSY3s and a potential co-evolution with the AM symbiosis is discussed in the context of PSY evolution. Knockdown of MtPSY3 in hairy roots of M. truncatula strongly reduced SL and AM-induced C13 α-ionol/C14 mycorradicin apocarotenoids. Inhibition of the reaction subsequent to phytoene synthesis revealed strongly elevated levels of phytoene indicating induced flux through the carotenoid pathway in roots upon mycorrhization. dPSY3 isogenes are coregulated with upstream isogenes and downstream carotenoid cleavage steps toward SLs (D27, CCD7, CCD8) suggesting a combined carotenoid/apocarotenoid pathway, which provides “just in time”-delivery of precursors for apocarotenoid formation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2185 TI - Grapevine fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase generates actin-disrupting volatiles and promotes defence-related cell death JO - J Exp Bot PY - 2018 SP - 2883-2896 AU - Akaberi, S. AU - Wang, H. AU - Claudel, P. AU - Riemann, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hugueney, P. AU - Nick, P. VL - 69 UR - https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article/69/12/2883/4961439 DO - 10.1093/jxb/ery133 AB - Fatty acid hydroperoxides can generate short-chained volatile aldehydes that may participate in plant defence. A grapevine hydroperoxide lyase (VvHPL1) clustering to the CYP74B class was functionally characterized with respect to a role in defence. In grapevine leaves, transcripts of this gene accumulated rapidly to high abundance in response to wounding. Cellular functions of VvHPL1 were investigated upon heterologous expression in tobacco BY-2 cells. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of VvHPL1 was located in plastids. The overexpression lines were found to respond to salinity stress or the bacterial elicitor harpin by increasing cell death. This signal-dependent mortality response was mitigated either by addition of exogenous jasmonic acid or by treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases. By feeding different substrates to recombinantly expressed enzyme, VvHPL1 could also be functionally classified as true 13-HPL. The cognate products generated by this 13-HPL were cis-3-hexenal and trans-2-hexenal. Using a GFP-tagged actin marker line, one of these isomeric products, cis-3-hexenal, was found specifically to elicit a rapid disintegration of actin filaments. This response was not only observed in the heterologous system (tobacco BY-2), but also in a grapevine cell strain expressing this marker, as well as in leaf discs from an actin marker grape used as a homologous system. These results are discussed in the context of a role for VvHPL1 in a lipoxygenase-dependent signalling pathway triggering cell death-related defence that bifurcates from jasmonate-dependent basal immunity. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2179 TI - Plant secretory structures: more than just reaction bags. JO - Curr Opin Biotechnol PY - 2018 SP - 73-79 AU - Tissier, A. VL - 49 UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958166917301003?via%3Dihub DO - 10.1016/j.copbio.2017.08.003 AB - Plants have a remarkable capacity for the production of a wide range of metabolites. Much has been reported and reviewed on the diversity of these metabolites and how it is achieved, for example through the evolution of enzyme families. In comparison, relatively little is known on the extraordinary metabolic productivity of dedicated organs where many of these metabolites are synthesized and accumulate. Plant glandular trichomes are such specialized metabolite factories, for which recent omics analyses have shed new light on the adaptive metabolic strategies that support high metabolic fluxes. In photosynthetic trichomes such as those of the Solanaceae, these include CO2 refixation and possibly C4-like metabolism which contribute to the high productivity of these sink organs. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2138 TI - UbiGate: a synthetic biology toolbox to analyse ubiquitination. JO - New Phytol. PY - 2018 SP - 1749-1763 AU - Kowarschik, K. AU - Hoehenwarter, W. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Trujillo, M. VL - 217 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.14900/full DO - 10.1111/nph.14900 AB - Ubiquitination is mediated by an enzymatic cascade that results in the modification of substrate proteins, redefining their fate. This post-translational modification is involved in most cellular processes, yet its analysis faces manifold obstacles due to its complex and ubiquitous nature. Reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascade in bacterial systems circumvents several of these problems and was shown to faithfully recapitulate the process. Here, we present UbiGate − a synthetic biology toolbox, together with an inducible bacterial expression system – to enable the straightforward reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascades of different organisms in Escherichia coli by ‘Golden Gate’ cloning. This inclusive toolbox uses a hierarchical modular cloning system to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding the multiple genetic elements of the ubiquitination cascade in a predefined order, to generate polycistronic operons for expression. We demonstrate the efficiency of UbiGate in generating a variety of expression elements to reconstitute autoubiquitination by different E3 ligases and the modification of their substrates, as well as its usefulness for dissecting the process in a time- and cost-effective manner. KW - Proteomics A2 - C1 - Proteome Analytics; Cell and Metabolic Biology; Independent Junior Research Groups ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2190 TI - Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the Modular Cloning system JO - PLoS ONE PY - 2018 SP - e0197185 AU - Gantner, J. AU - Ordon, J. AU - Ilse, T. AU - Kretschmer, C. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Löfke, C. AU - Dagdas, Y. AU - Bürstenbinder, K. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Stuttmann, J. VL - 13 UR - http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197185 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0197185 AB - Standardized DNA assembly strategies facilitate the generation of multigene constructs from collections of building blocks in plant synthetic biology. A common syntax for hierarchical DNA assembly following the Golden Gate principle employing Type IIs restriction endonucleases was recently developed, and underlies the Modular Cloning and GoldenBraid systems. In these systems, transcriptional units and/or multigene constructs are assembled from libraries of standardized building blocks, also referred to as phytobricks, in several hierarchical levels and by iterative Golden Gate reactions. Here, a toolkit containing further modules for the novel DNA assembly standards was developed. Intended for use with Modular Cloning, most modules are also compatible with GoldenBraid. Firstly, a collection of approximately 80 additional phytobricks is provided, comprising e.g. modules for inducible expression systems, promoters or epitope tags. Furthermore, DNA modules were developed for connecting Modular Cloning and Gateway cloning, either for toggling between systems or for standardized Gateway destination vector assembly. Finally, first instances of a “peripheral infrastructure” around Modular Cloning are presented: While available toolkits are designed for the assembly of plant transformation constructs, vectors were created to also use coding sequence-containing phytobricks directly in yeast two hybrid interaction or bacterial infection assays. The presented material will further enhance versatility of hierarchical DNA assembly strategies. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Molecular Signal Processing ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2115 TI - Is there genetic variation in mycorrhization of Medicago truncatula? JO - PeerJ PY - 2017 SP - e3713 AU - Dreher, D. AU - Yadav, H. AU - Zander, S. AU - Hause, B. VL - 5 UR - https://peerj.com/articles/3713/ DO - 10.7717/peerj.3713 AB - Differences in the plant’s response among ecotypes or accessions are often used to identify molecular markers for the respective process. In order to analyze genetic diversity of Medicago truncatula in respect to interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, mycorrhizal colonization was evaluated in 32 lines of the nested core collection representing the genetic diversity of the SARDI collection. All studied lines and the reference line Jemalong A17 were inoculated with R. irregularis and the mycorrhization rate was determined at three time points after inoculation. There were, however, no reliable and consistent differences in mycorrhization rates among all lines. To circumvent possible overlay of potential differences by use of the highly effective inoculum, native sandy soil was used in an independent experiment. Here, significant differences in mycorrhization rates among few of the lines were detectable, but the overall high variability in the mycorrhization rate hindered clear conclusions. To narrow down the number of lines to be tested in more detail, root system architecture (RSA) of in vitro-grown seedlings of all lines under two different phosphate (Pi) supply condition was determined in terms of primary root length and number of lateral roots. Under high Pi supply (100 µM), only minor differences were observed, whereas in response to Pi-limitation (3 µM) several lines exhibited a drastically changed number of lateral roots. Five lines showing the highest alterations or deviations in RSA were selected and inoculated with R. irregularis using two different Pi-fertilization regimes with either 13 mM or 3 mM Pi. Mycorrhization rate of these lines was checked in detail by molecular markers, such as transcript levels of RiTubulin and MtPT4. Under high phosphate supply, the ecotypes L000368 and L000555 exhibited slightly increased fungal colonization and more functional arbuscules, respectively. To address the question, whether capability for mycorrhizal colonization might be correlated to general invasion by microorganisms, selected lines were checked for infection by the root rot causing pathogen, Aphanoymces euteiches. The mycorrhizal colonization phenotype, however, did not correlate with the resistance phenotype upon infection with two strains of A. euteiches as L000368 showed partial resistance and L000555 exhibited high susceptibility as determined by quantification of A. euteiches rRNA within infected roots. Although there is genetic diversity in respect to pathogen infection, genetic diversity in mycorrhizal colonization of M. truncatula is rather low and it will be rather difficult to use it as a trait to access genetic markers. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2181 TI - The TAL effector AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria contains multiple export signals and can enter plant cells in the absence of the Type III secretion translocon. JO - Front Microbiol. PY - 2017 SP - 2180 AU - Scheibner, F. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Büttner, D. VL - 8 UR - https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02180/full DO - 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02180 AB - Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system which translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Effector protein delivery is controlled by the T3S chaperone HpaB, which presumably escorts effector proteins to the secretion apparatus. One intensively studied effector is the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrBs3, which binds to promoter sequences of plant target genes and activates plant gene expression. It was previously reported that type III-dependent delivery of AvrBs3 depends on the N-terminal protein region. The signals that control T3S and translocation of AvrBs3, however, have not yet been characterized. In the present study, we show that T3S and translocation of AvrBs3 depend on the N-terminal 10 and 50 amino acids, respectively. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that additional signals in the N-terminal 30 amino acids and the region between amino acids 64 and 152 promote translocation of AvrBs3 in the absence of HpaB. Unexpectedly, in vivo translocation assays revealed that AvrBs3 is delivered into plant cells even in the absence of HrpF, which is the predicted channel-forming component of the T3S translocon in the plant plasma membrane. The presence of HpaB- and HrpF-independent transport routes suggests that the delivery of AvrBs3 is initiated during early stages of the infection process, presumably before the activation of HpaB or the insertion of the translocon into the plant plasma membrane. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 2180 TI - Generation of dTALEs and libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters for engineering of gene regulatory networks in plants. T2 - Plant gene regulatory networks: methods and protocols. PB - Meth Mol Biol. PY - 2017 SP - 185-204 AU - Schreiber, T. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 1629 UR - https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-4939-7125-1_13 SN - 978-1-4939-7125-1 DO - 10.1007/978-1-4939-7125-1_13 AB - Transcription factors with programmable DNA-binding specificity constitute valuable tools for the design of orthogonal gene regulatory networks for synthetic biology. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), as natural transcription regulators, were used to design, build, and test libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters (STAPs) that show a broad range of expression levels in plants. In this chapter, we present protocols for the construction of artificial TALEs and corresponding STAPs. A2 - Kaufmann, K. et al. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2178 TI - Plant Volatiles: going ‘In’ but not ‘out’ of trichome cavities. JO - Trends Plant Sci. PY - 2017 SP - 930-938 AU - Tissier, A. AU - Morgan, J. A. AU - Dudareva, N. VL - 22 UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360138517301851 DO - 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.09.001 AB - Plant glandular trichomes are able to secrete and store large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs typically accumulate in dedicated extracellular spaces, which can be either subcuticular, as in the Lamiaceae or Asteraceae, or intercellular, as in the Solanaceae. Volatiles are retained at high concentrations in these storage cavities with limited release into the atmosphere and without re-entering the secretory cells, where they would be toxic. This implies the existence of mechanisms allowing transport of VOCs to the cavity but preventing their diffusion out once they have been delivered. The cuticle and cell wall lining the cavity are likely to have key roles in retaining volatiles, but their exact composition and the potential molecular players involved are largely unknown. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2146 TI - A 1-phytase type III effector interferes with plant hormone signaling. JO - Nature Commun. PY - 2017 SP - 2159 AU - Blüher, D. AU - Laha, D. AU - Thieme, S. AU - Hofer, A. AU - Eschen-Lippold, L. AU - Masch, A. AU - Balcke, G. AU - Pavlovic, I. AU - Nagel, O. AU - Schonsky, A. AU - Hinkelmann, R. AU - Wörner, J. AU - Parvin, N. AU - Greiner, R. AU - Weber, S. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Schutkowski, M. AU - Lee, J. AU - Jessen, H. AU - Schaaf, G. AU - Bonas, U. VL - 8(1) UR - https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02195-8 DO - 10.1038/s41467-017-02195-8 AB - Most Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria inject type III effector (T3E) proteins into plant cells to manipulate signaling pathways to the pathogen’s benefit. In resistant plants, specialized immune receptors recognize single T3Es or their biochemical activities, thus halting pathogen ingress. However, molecular function and mode of recognition for most T3Es remains elusive. Here, we show that the Xanthomonas T3E XopH possesses phytase activity, i.e., dephosphorylates phytate (myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate, InsP6), the major phosphate storage compound in plants, which is also involved in pathogen defense. A combination of biochemical approaches, including a new NMR-based method to discriminate inositol polyphosphate enantiomers, identifies XopH as a naturally occurring 1-phytase that dephosphorylates InsP6 at C1. Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana and pepper by Xanthomonas results in a XopH-dependent conversion of InsP6 to InsP5. 1-phytase activity is required for XopH-mediated immunity of plants carrying the Bs7 resistance gene, and for induction of jasmonate- and ethylene-responsive genes in N. benthamiana. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2131 TI - Physiological and proteomic analysis of the rice mutant cpm2 suggests a negative regulatory role of Jasmonic acid in drought tolerance. JO - Front Plant Sci PY - 2017 SP - 1903 AU - Dhakarey, R. AU - Raorane, M. L. AU - Treumann, A. AU - Peethambaran, P. K. AU - Schendel, R. R. AU - Sahi, V. P. AU - Hause, B. AU - Bunzel, M. AU - Henry, A. AU - Kohli, A. AU - Riemann, M. VL - 8 UR - DO - 10.3389/fpls.2017.01903 AB - It is widely known that numerous adaptive responses of drought-stressed plants are stimulated by chemical messengers known as phytohormones. Jasmonic acid (JA) is one such phytohormone. But there are very few reports revealing its direct implication in drought related responses or its cross-talk with other phytohormones. In this study, we compared the morpho-physiological traits and the root proteome of a wild type (WT) rice plant with its JA biosynthesis mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2), disrupted in the allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene, for insights into the role of JA under drought. The mutant had higher stomatal conductance, higher water use efficiency and higher shoot ABA levels under severe drought as compared to the WT. Notably, roots of cpm2 were better developed compared to the WT under both, control and drought stress conditions. Root proteome was analyzed using the Tandem Mass Tag strategy to better understand this difference at the molecular level. Expectedly, AOC was unique but notably highly abundant under drought in the WT. Identification of other differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) suggested increased energy metabolism (i.e., increased mobilization of resources) and reactive oxygen species scavenging in cpm2 under drought. Additionally, various proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell growth and cell wall synthesis were also more abundant in cpm2 roots. Proteome-guided transcript, metabolite, and histological analyses provided further insights into the favorable adaptations and responses, most likely orchestrated by the lack of JA, in the cpm2 roots. Our results in cpm2 are discussed in the light of JA crosstalk to other phytohormones. These results together pave the path for understanding the precise role of JA during drought stress in rice. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2085 TI - Multi-Omics of tomato glandular trichomes reveals distinct features of central carbon metabolism supporting high productivity of specialized metabolites JO - Plant Cell PY - 2017 SP - 960-983 AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Bennewitz, S. AU - Bergau, N. AU - Athmer, B. AU - Henning, A. AU - Majovsky, P. AU - Jiménez-Gómez, J. M. AU - Hoehenwarter, W. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 29 UR - http://www.plantcell.org/content/29/5/960 DO - 10.1105/tpc.17.00060 AB - Glandular trichomes are metabolic cell factories with the capacity to produce large quantities of secondary metabolites. Little is known about the connection between central carbon metabolism and metabolic productivity for secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we performed comparative metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and 13C-labeling of type VI glandular trichomes and leaves from a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum LA4024) and a wild (Solanum habrochaites LA1777) tomato accession. Specific features of glandular trichomes that drive the formation of secondary metabolites could be identified. Tomato type VI trichomes are photosynthetic but acquire their carbon essentially from leaf sucrose. The energy and reducing power from photosynthesis are used to support the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, while the comparatively reduced Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle activity may be involved in recycling metabolic CO2. Glandular trichomes cope with oxidative stress by producing high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxylipins, and glutathione. Finally, distinct mechanisms are present in glandular trichomes to increase the supply of precursors for the isoprenoid pathways. Particularly, the citrate-malate shuttle supplies cytosolic acetyl CoA and plastidic glycolysis and malic enzyme support the formation of plastidic pyruvate. A model is proposed on how glandular trichomes achieve high metabolic productivity. KW - Proteomics A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Proteome Analytics ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2084 TI - Integrated omics analyses of retrograde signaling mutant delineate interrelated stress-response strata. JO - Plant J. PY - 2017 SP - 70–84 AU - Bjornson, M. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Xiao, Y. AU - de Souza, A. AU - Wang, J.-Z. AU - Zhabinskaya, D. AU - Tagkopoulos, I. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Dehesh, K. VL - 91 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tpj.13547/full DO - 10.1111/tpj.13547 AB - To maintain homeostasis in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic insults, cells have evolved elaborate quality control networks to resolve damage at multiple levels. Interorganellar communication is a key requirement for this maintenance, however the underlying mechanisms of this communication have remained an enigma. Here we integrate the outcome of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics analyses of genotypes including ceh1, a mutant with constitutively elevated levels of both the stress-specific plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite methyl-erythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), as well as the high MEcPP but SA deficient genotype ceh1/eds16, along with corresponding controls. Integration of multi-omic analyses enabled us to delineate the function of MEcPP from SA, and expose the compartmentalized role of this retrograde signaling metabolite in induction of distinct but interdependent signaling cascades instrumental in adaptive responses. Specifically, here we identify strata of MEcPP-sensitive stress-response cascades, among which we focus on selected pathways including organelle-specific regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis; simultaneous induction of synthesis and breakdown of SA; and MEcPP-mediated alteration of cellular redox status in particular glutathione redox balance. Collectively, these integrated multi-omic analyses provided a vehicle to gain an in-depth knowledge of genome-metabolism interactions, and to further probe the extent of these interactions and delineate their functional contributions. Through this approach we were able to pinpoint stress-mediated transcriptional and metabolic signatures and identify the downstream processes modulated by the independent or overlapping functions of MEcPP and SA in adaptive responses. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2177 TI - Initiation of ER body formation and indole glucosinolate metabolism by the plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite, MEcPP. JO - Mol Plant PY - 2017 SP - 1400-1416 AU - Wang, J.-Z. AU - Li, B. AU - Xiao, Y. AU - Ni, Y. AU - Ke, H. AU - Yang, P. AU - de Souza, A. AU - Bjornson, M. AU - He, X. AU - Shen, Z. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Briggs, S. P. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Kliebenstein, D. J. AU - Dehesh, K. VL - 10 UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674205217302757 DO - 10.1016/j.molp.2017.09.012 AB - Plants have evolved tightly regulated signaling networks to respond and adapt to environmental perturbations, but the nature of the signaling hub(s) involved have remained an enigma. We have previously established that methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a precursor of plastidial isoprenoids and a stress-specific retrograde signaling metabolite, enables cellular readjustments for high-order adaptive functions. Here, we specifically show that MEcPP promotes two Brassicaceae-specific traits, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation and induction of indole glucosinolate (IGs) metabolism selectively, via transcriptional regulation of key regulators NAI1 for ER body formation and MYB51/122 for IGs biosynthesis). The specificity of MEcPP is further confirmed by the lack of induction of wound-inducible ER body genes as well as IGs by other altered methylerythritol phosphate pathway enzymes. Genetic analyses revealed MEcPP-mediated COI1-dependent induction of these traits. Moreover, MEcPP signaling integrates the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of IGs through induction of nitrile-specifier protein1 and reduction of the suppressor, ESM1, and production of simple nitriles as the bioactive end product. The findings position the plastidial metabolite, MEcPP, as the initiation hub, transducing signals to adjust the activity of hard-wired gene circuitry to expand phytochemical diversity and alter the associated subcellular structure required for functionality of the secondary metabolites, thereby tailoring plant stress responses. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2105 TI - Global proteomic analysis of advanced glycation end products in the Arabidopsis proteome provides evidence for age-related glycation hotspots. JO - J Biol Chem. PY - 2017 SP - 15758-15776 AU - Bilova, T. AU - Paudel, G. AU - Shilyaev, N. AU - Schmidt, R. AU - Brauch, D. AU - Tarakhovskaya, E. AU - Milrud, S. AU - Smolikova, G. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Sinz, A. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Birkemeyer, C. AU - Wessjohann, L. A. AU - Frolov, A. VL - 292 UR - http://www.jbc.org/content/292/38/15758 DO - 10.1074/jbc.M117.794537 AB - Glycation is a post-translational modification resulting from the interaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds. Initially, amino groups react with reducing carbohydrates, yielding Amadori and Heyns compounds. Their further degradation results in formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), also originating from α-dicarbonyl products of monosaccharide autoxidation and primary metabolism. In mammals, AGEs are continuously formed during the life of the organism, and accumulate in tissues, being well-known markers of ageing, impacting age-related tissue stiffing and atherosclerotic changes. However, the role of AGEs in age-related molecular alterations in plants is still unknown. To fill this gap, we present here a comprehensive study of the age-related changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana glycated proteome, including the proteins affected and specific glycation sites therein. We also consider the qualitative and quantitative changes in glycation patterns in terms of the general metabolic background, pathways of AGE formation, and the status of plant anti-oxidative/anti-glycative defense. Although the patterns of glycated proteins were only minimally influenced by plant age, the abundances of 96 AGE sites in 71 proteins were significantly affected in an age-dependent manner and clearly indicated the existence of age-related glycation hotspots in the plant proteome. Homology modeling revealed glutamyl and aspartyl residues in close proximity (less than 5 Å) to these sites in 3 ageing-specific and 8 differentially glycated proteins, four of which were modified in catalytic domains. Thus, the sites of glycation hotspots might be defined by protein structure that indicates, at least partly, site-specific character of glycation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006434 A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2076 TI - An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors—a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma? JO - Mol Plant Pathol PY - 2017 SP - 435-442 AU - Janik, K. AU - Mithöfer, A. AU - Raffeiner, M. AU - Stellmach, H. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schlink, K. VL - 18 UR - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mpp.12409 DO - 10.1111/mpp.12409 AB - The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2159 TI - Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the modular cloning system JO - bioRxiv PY - 2017 SP - AU - Gantner, J. AU - Ilse, T. AU - Ordon, J. AU - Kretschmer, C. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Loefke, C. AU - Dagdas, Y. AU - Buerstenbinder, K. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Stuttmann, J. VL - UR - https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/12/21/237768 DO - 10.1101/237768 AB - Standardized DNA assembly strategies facilitate the generation of multigene constructs from collections of building blocks in plant synthetic biology. A common syntax for hierarchical DNA assembly following the Golden Gate principle employing Type IIs restriction endonucleases was recently developed, and underlies the Modular Cloning and GoldenBraid systems. In these systems, transcriptional units and/or multigene constructs are assembled from libraries of standardized building blocks, also referred to as phytobricks, in several hierarchical levels and by iterative Golden Gate reactions. This combinatorial assembly strategy meets the increasingly complex demands in biotechnology and bioengineering, and also represents a cost-efficient and versatile alternative to previous molecular cloning techniques. For Modular Cloning, a collection of commonly used Plant Parts was previously released together with the Modular Cloning toolkit itself, which largely facilitated the adoption of this cloning system in the research community. Here, a collection of approximately 80 additional phytobricks is provided. These phytobricks comprise e.g. modules for inducible expression systems, different promoters or epitope tags, which will increase the versatility of Modular Cloning-based DNA assemblies. Furthermore, first instances of a "peripheral infrastructure" around Modular Cloning are presented: While available toolkits are designed for the assembly of plant transformation constructs, vectors were created to also use coding sequence-containing phytobricks directly in yeast two hybrid interaction or bacterial infection assays. Additionally, DNA modules and assembly strategies for connecting Modular Cloning with Gateway Cloning are presented, which may serve as an interface between available resources and newly adopted hierarchical assembly strategies. The presented material will be provided as a toolkit to the plant research community and will further enhance the usefulness and versatility of Modular Cloning. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Molecular Signal Processing ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2030 TI - Early responses of mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants to reduced water potential in the agar-based polyethylene glycol infusion drought model. JO - J Plant Physiol. PY - 2017 SP - 70-83 AU - Frolov, A. AU - Bilova, T. AU - Paudel, G. AU - Berger, R. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Birkemeyer, C. AU - Wessjohann, L. A. VL - 208 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0176161716302395 DO - 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.09.013 AB - Drought is one of the most important environmental stressors resulting in increasing losses of crop plant productivity all over the world. Therefore, development of new approaches to increase the stress tolerance of crop plants is strongly desired. This requires precise and adequate modeling of drought stress. As this type of stress manifests itself as a steady decrease in the substrate water potential (ψw), agar plates infused with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the perfect experimental tool: they are easy in preparation and provide a constantly reduced ψw, which is not possible in soil models. However, currently, this model is applicable only to seedlings and cannot be used for evaluation of stress responses in mature plants, which are obviously the most appropriate objects for drought tolerance research. To overcome this limitation, here we introduce a PEG-based agar infusion model suitable for 6–8-week-old A. thaliana plants, and characterize, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the early drought stress responses of adult plants grown on PEG-infused agar. We describe essential alterations in the primary metabolome (sugars and related compounds, amino acids and polyamines) accompanied by qualitative and quantitative changes in protein patterns: up to 87 unique stress-related proteins were annotated under drought stress conditions, whereas further 84 proteins showed a change in abundance. The obtained proteome patterns differed slightly from those reported for seedlings and soil-based models. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1988 TI - Osmotic stress is accompanied by protein glycation in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - J. Exp. Bot. PY - 2016 SP - 6283-6295 AU - Paudel, G. AU - Bilova, T. AU - Schmidt, R. AU - Greifenhagen, U. AU - Berger, R. AU - Tarakhovskaya, E. AU - Stöckhardt, S. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Humbeck, K. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Sinz, A. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Birkemeyer, C. AU - Wessjohann, L. AU - Frolov, A VL - 67 UR - http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year DO - 10.1093/jxb/erw395 AB - Among the environmental alterations accompanying oncoming climate changes, drought is the most important factor influencing crop plant productivity. In plants, water deficit ultimately results in the development of oxidative stress and accumulation of osmolytes (e.g. amino acids and carbohydrates) in all tissues. Up-regulation of sugar biosynthesis in parallel to the increasing overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) might enhance protein glycation, i.e. interaction of carbonyl compounds, reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls with lysyl and arginyl side-chains yielding early (Amadori and Heyns compounds) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Although the constitutive plant protein glycation patterns were characterized recently, the effects of environmental stress on AGE formation are unknown so far. To fill this gap, we present here a comprehensive in-depth study of the changes in Arabidopsis thaliana advanced glycated proteome related to osmotic stress. A 3 d application of osmotic stress revealed 31 stress-specifically and 12 differentially AGE-modified proteins, representing altogether 56 advanced glycation sites. Based on proteomic and metabolomic results, in combination with biochemical, enzymatic and gene expression analysis, we propose monosaccharide autoxidation as the main stress-related glycation mechanism, and glyoxal as the major glycation agent in plants subjected to drought. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2022 TI - Discovering regulated metabolite families in untargeted metabolomics studies. JO - Anal Chem PY - 2016 SP - 8082-8090 AU - Treutler, H. AU - Tsugawa, H. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Gorzolka, K. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Neumann, S. AU - Balcke, G. U. VL - 88 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01569 DO - 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01569 AB - The identification of metabolites by mass spectrometry constitutes a major bottleneck which considerably limits the throughput of metabolomics studies in biomedical or plant research. Here, we present a novel approach to analyze metabolomics data from untargeted, data-independent LC-MS/MS measurements. By integrated analysis of MS1 abundances and MS/MS spectra, the identification of regulated metabolite families is achieved. This approach offers a global view on metabolic regulation in comparative metabolomics. We implemented our approach in the web application “MetFamily”, which is freely available at http://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFamily/. MetFamily provides a dynamic link between the patterns based on MS1-signal intensity and the corresponding structural similarity at the MS/MS level. Structurally related metabolites are annotated as metabolite families based on a hierarchical cluster analysis of measured MS/MS spectra. Joint examination with principal component analysis of MS1 patterns, where this annotation A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1981 TI - Elucidation of the biosynthesis of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast JO - Nat Commun PY - 2016 SP - 12942 AU - Scheler, U. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Rothe, K. AU - Manzano, D. AU - Božić, D. AU - Papaefthimiou, D. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Henning, A. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Kanellis, A. K. AU - Ferrer, A. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 7 UR - http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12942 DO - 10.1038/ncomms12942 AB - Rosemary extracts containing the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and its derivative carnosol are approved food additives used in an increasingly wide range of products to enhance shelf-life, thanks to their high anti-oxidant activity. We describe here the elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast cells. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYP76AH22-24) from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia fruticosa already characterized as ferruginol synthases are also able to produce 11-hydroxyferruginol. Modelling-based mutagenesis of three amino acids in the related ferruginol synthase (CYP76AH1) from S. miltiorrhiza is sufficient to convert it to a 11-hydroxyferruginol synthase (HFS). The three sequential C20 oxidations for the conversion of 11-hydroxyferruginol to carnosic acid are catalysed by the related CYP76AK6-8. The availability of the genes for the biosynthesis of carnosic acid opens opportunities for the metabolic engineering of phenolic diterpenes, a class of compounds with potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1887 TI - MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides. JO - Plant Cell PY - 2016 SP - 583-596 AU - Dobritzsch, M. AU - Lübken, T. AU - Eschen-Lippold, L. AU - Gorzolka, K. AU - Blum, E. AU - Matern, A. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Dräger, B. AU - Rosahl, S. VL - 28 UR - http://www.plantcell.org/search?author1=dobritzsch&fulltext=&pubdate_year=&volume=&firstpage=&submit=yes DO - 10.1105/tpc.15.00706 AB - The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1906 TI - Type III-Dependent Translocation of HrpB2 by a Nonpathogenic hpaABC Mutant of the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. JO - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. PY - 2016 SP - 3331-3347 AU - Scheibner, F. AU - Schulz, S. AU - Hausner, J. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Büttner, D. VL - 82 UR - http://aem.asm.org/ DO - 10.1128/AEM.00537-16 AB - The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria employs a type III secretion (T3S) system to translocate effector proteins into plant cells. The T3S apparatus spans both bacterial membranes and is associated with an extracellular pilus and a channel-like translocon in the host plasma membrane. T3S is controlled by the switch protein HpaC, which suppresses secretion and translocation of the predicted inner rod protein HrpB2 and promotes secretion of translocon and effector proteins. We previously reported that HrpB2 interacts with HpaC and the cytoplasmic domain of the inner membrane protein HrcU (C. Lorenz, S. Schulz, T. Wolsch, O. Rossier, U. Bonas, and D. Büttner, PLoS Pathog 4:e1000094, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000094). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control of HrpB2 secretion are not yet understood. Here, we located a T3S and translocation signal in the N-terminal 40 amino acids of HrpB2. The results of complementation experiments with HrpB2 deletion derivatives revealed that the T3S signal of HrpB2 is essential for protein function. Furthermore, interaction studies showed that the N-terminal region of HrpB2 interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of HrcU, suggesting that the T3S signal of HrpB2 contributes to substrate docking. Translocation of HrpB2 is suppressed not only by HpaC but also by the T3S chaperone HpaB and its secreted regulator, HpaA. Deletion of hpaA, hpaB, and hpaC leads to a loss of pathogenicity but allows the translocation of fusion proteins between the HrpB2 T3S signal and effector proteins into leaves of host and non-host plants. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1898 TI - Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry. JO - Front. Plant Sci. PY - 2016 SP - AU - Bergau, N. AU - Navarette Santos, A. AU - Henning, A. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Tissier, A. VL - UR - http://journal.frontiersin.org/journal/plant-science#about DO - org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00949 AB - The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1956 TI - Libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters: methods and applications T2 - Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in plants and microbes, Part B: metabolism in plants PB - Method. Enzymol PY - 2016 SP - 361-378 AU - Schreiber, T. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 576 UR - SN - Electronic 9780128111239; Print 9780128045398 DO - 10.1016/bs.mie.2016.03.004 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1951 TI - Analysis of Phosphorylation of the Receptor-Like Protein Kinase HAESA during Arabidopsis Floral Abscission JO - Plos One PY - 2016 SP - e0147203 AU - Taylor, I. AU - Wang, Y. AU - Seitz, K. AU - Baer, J. AU - Bennewitz, S. AU - Mooney, B. P. AU - Walker, J. C. VL - 11 UR - http://journals.plos.org/plosone/ DO - org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147203 AB - Receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are the largest family of plant transmembrane signaling proteins. Here we present functional analysis of HAESA, an RLK that regulates floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis of HAE phosphorylation, we provide evidence that a conserved phosphorylation site on a region of the HAE protein kinase domain known as the activation segment positively regulates HAE activity. Additional analysis has identified another putative activation segment phosphorylation site common to multiple RLKs that potentially modulates HAE activity. Comparative analysis suggests that phosphorylation of this second activation segment residue is an RLK specific adaptation that may regulate protein kinase activity and substrate specificity. A growing number of RLKs have been shown to exhibit biologically relevant dual specificity toward serine/threonine and tyrosine residues, but the mechanisms underlying dual specificity of RLKs are not well understood. We show that a phospho-mimetic mutant of both HAE activation segment residues exhibits enhanced tyrosine auto-phosphorylation in vitro, indicating phosphorylation of this residue may contribute to dual specificity of HAE. These results add to an emerging framework for understanding the mechanisms and evolution of regulation of RLK activity and substrate specificity. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1949 TI - Glycation of Plant Proteins under Environmental Stress — Methodological Approaches, Potential Mechanisms and Biological Role T2 - Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants - Recent Advances and Future Perspectives PB - PY - 2016 SP - AU - Bilova, T. AU - Greifenhagen, U. AU - Paudel, G. AU - Lukasheva, E. AU - Brauch, D. AU - Osmolovskaya, N. AU - Tarakhovskaya, E. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Birkemeyer, C. AU - Wessjohann, L. AU - Frolov, A. VL - UR - http://www.intechopen.com/books/abiotic-and-biotic-stress-in-plants-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives SN - 978-953-51-2250-0 DO - 10.5772/61860 AB - Environmental stress is one of the major factors reducing crop productivity. Due to the oncoming climate changes, the effects of drought and high light on plants play an increasing role in modern agriculture. These changes are accompanied with a progressing contamination of soils with heavy metals. Independent of their nature, environmental alterations result in development of oxidative stress, i.e. increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and metabolic adjustment, i.e. accumulation of soluble primary metabolites (amino acids and sugars). However, a simultaneous increase of ROS and sugar concentrations ultimately results in protein glycation, i.e. non-enzymatic interaction of reducing sugars or their degradation products (α-dicarbonyls) with proteins. The eventually resulting advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are known to be toxic and pro-inflammatory in mammals. Recently, their presence was unambiguously demonstrated in vivo in stressed Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Currently, information on protein targets, modification sites therein, mediators and mechanisms of plant glycation are being intensively studied. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the methodological approaches for plant glycation research and discuss potential mechanisms of AGE formation under stress conditions. On the basis of these patterns and additional in vitro experiments, the pathways and mechanisms of plant glycation can be proposed. A2 - Shanker, A. K.; Shanker, C. C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1948 TI - Different forms of osmotic stress evoke qualitatively different responses in rice JO - J PLANT PHYSIOL PY - 2016 SP - 45–56 AU - Hazmana, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Eiche, E. AU - Riemann, M. AU - Nick, P. VL - 202 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01761617 DO - 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.05.027 AB - Drought, salinity and alkalinity are distinct forms of osmotic stress with serious impacts on rice productivity. We investigated, for a salt-sensitive rice cultivar, the response to osmotically equivalent doses of these stresses. Drought, experimentally mimicked by mannitol (single factor: osmotic stress), salinity (two factors: osmotic stress and ion toxicity), and alkalinity (three factors: osmotic stress, ion toxicity, and depletion of nutrients and protons) produced different profiles of adaptive and damage responses, both locally (in the root) as well as systemically (in the shoot). The combination of several stress factors was not necessarily additive, and we even observed cases of mitigation, when two (salinity), or three stressors (alkalinity) were compared to the single stressor (drought). The response to combinations of individual stress factors is therefore not a mere addition of the partial stress responses, but rather represents a new quality of response. We interpret this finding in a model, where the output to signaling molecules is not determined by their abundance per se, but qualitatively depends on their adequate integration into an adaptive signaling network. This output generates a systemic signal that will determine the quality of the shoot response to local concentrations of ions. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1946 TI - A Snapshot of the Plant Glycated Proteome: structural, functional, and mechanistic aspects JO - J. Biol. Chem. PY - 2016 SP - 7621-7636 AU - Bilova, T. AU - Lukasheva, E. AU - Brauch, D. AU - Greifenhagen, U. AU - Paudel, G. AU - Tarakhovskaya, E. AU - Frolova, N. AU - Mittasch, J. AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Osmolovskaya, N. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Wessjohann, L. A. AU - Birkemeyer, C. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Frolov VL - 291 UR - http://www.jbc.org/content/by/year DO - doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.678581 AB - Glycation is the reaction of carbonyl compounds (reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls) with amino acids, lipids, and proteins, yielding early and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The AGEs can be formed via degradation of early glycation intermediates (glycoxidation) and by interaction with the products of monosaccharide autoxidation (autoxidative glycosylation). Although formation of these potentially deleterious compounds is well characterized in animal systems and thermally treated foods, only a little information about advanced glycation in plants is available. Thus, the knowledge of the plant AGE patterns and the underlying pathways of their formation are completely missing. To fill this gap, we describe the AGE-modified proteome of Brassica napus and characterize individual sites of advanced glycation by the methods of liquid chromatography-based bottom-up proteomics. The modification patterns were complex but reproducible: 789 AGE-modified peptides in 772 proteins were detected in two independent experiments. In contrast, only 168 polypeptides contained early glycated lysines, which did not resemble the sites of advanced glycation. Similar observations were made with Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of the early glycated precursors of the AGE-modified protein residues indicated autoxidative glycosylation, but not glycoxidation, as the major pathway of AGE formation. To prove this assumption and to identify the potential modifying agents, we estimated the reactivity and glycative potential of plant-derived sugars using a model peptide approach and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based techniques. Evaluation of these data sets together with the assessed tissue carbohydrate contents revealed dihydroxyacetone phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, ribulose, erythrose, and sucrose as potential precursors of plant AGEs. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1943 TI - Dynamic metabolic changes in seeds and seedlings of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) suppressing UGT84A9 reveal plasticity and molecular regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway JO - PY - 2016 SP - 46–57 AU - Hettwer, K. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Frolov, A. AU - Mittasch, J. AU - Albert, A. AU - von Roepenack-Lahayeb, E. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 124 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.01.014 AB - In Brassica napus, suppression of the key biosynthetic enzyme UDP-glucose:sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (UGT84A9) inhibits the biosynthesis of sinapine (sinapoylcholine), the major phenolic component of seeds. Based on the accumulation kinetics of a total of 158 compounds (110 secondary and 48 primary metabolites), we investigated how suppression of the major sink pathway of sinapic acid impacts the metabolome of developing seeds and seedlings. In UGT84A9-suppressing (UGT84A9i) lines massive alterations became evident in late stages of seed development affecting the accumulation levels of 58 secondary and 7 primary metabolites. UGT84A9i seeds were characterized by decreased amounts of various hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) esters, and increased formation of sinapic and syringic acid glycosides. This indicates glycosylation and β-oxidation as metabolic detoxification strategies to bypass intracellular accumulation of sinapic acid. In addition, a net loss of sinapic acid upon UGT84A9 suppression may point to a feedback regulation of HCA biosynthesis. Surprisingly, suppression of UGT84A9 under control of the seed-specific NAPINC promoter was maintained in cotyledons during the first two weeks of seedling development and associated with a reduced and delayed transformation of sinapine into sinapoylmalate. The lack of sinapoylmalate did not interfere with plant fitness under UV-B stress. Increased UV-B radiation triggered the accumulation of quercetin conjugates whereas the sinapoylmalate level was not affected. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1928 TI - Jasmonates: synthesis, metabolism, signal transduction and action T2 - eLS. Chichester: Wiley PB - PY - 2016 SP - AU - Wasternack, C. VL - UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/047001590X/homepage/WhatsNew.html SN - ISBN 978-0-4700-1590-2 DO - 10.1002/9780470015902.a0020138.pub2 AB - Jasmonic acid and other fatty-acid-derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants. The receptor complex, signal transduction components as well as repressors and activators in jasmonate-induced gene expression have been elucidated. Different regulatory levels and cross-talk with other hormones are responsible for the multiplicity of plant responses to environmental and developmental cues. A2 - C1 - ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1978 TI - The recently identified isoleucine conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic acid is partially active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic acid-specific gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana JO - PLoS ONE PY - 2016 SP - e0162829 AU - Arnold, M. D., Gruber, C., Floková, K., Miersch, O., Strnad, M., Novák, O., Wasternack, C. & Hause, B. VL - 11 UR - http://journals.plos.org/plosone/ DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0162829 AB - Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1817 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels. JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2016 SP - 141-152 AU - Pedranzani, H. AU - Rodríguez-Rivera, M. AU - Gutiérrez, M. AU - Porcel, R. AU - Hause, B. AU - Ruiz-Lozano, J. M. VL - 26 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/572 DO - 10.1007/s00572-015-0653-4 AB - This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved in this process A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1889 TI - Plant surface reactions: an opportunistic ozone defence mechanism impacting atmospheric chemistry. JO - Atmos. Chem. Phys. PY - 2016 SP - 277-292 AU - Jud, W AU - Fischer, L. AU - Canaval, E. AU - Wohlfahrt, G. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Hansel, VL - 16 UR - http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/277/2016/ DO - 10.5194/acp-16-277-2016 AB - Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. Plant injuries have been linked to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative damage of the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: can surface reactions limit the stomatal uptake of ozone and therefore reduce its detrimental effects to plants?In this laboratory study we could show that semi-volatile organic compounds exuded by the glandular trichomes of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties are an efficient ozone sink at the plant surface. In our experiments, different diterpenoid compounds were responsible for a strongly variety-dependent ozone uptake of plants under dark conditions, when stomatal pores are almost closed. Surface reactions of ozone were accompanied by a prompt release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be linked to the corresponding precursor compounds: ozonolysis cis-abienol (C20H34O) – a diterpenoid with two exocyclic double bonds – caused emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO) and methyl vinyl ketone (C4H6O). The ring-structured cembratrien-diols (C20H34O2) with three endocyclic double bonds need at least two ozonolysis steps to form volatile carbonyls such as 4-oxopentanal (C5H8O2), which we could observe in the gas phase, too.Fluid dynamic calculations were used to model ozone distribution in the diffusion-limited leaf boundary layer under daylight conditions. In the case of an ozone-reactive leaf surface, ozone gradients in the vicinity of stomatal pores are changed in such a way that the ozone flux through the open stomata is strongly reduced.Our results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as a source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the ozone tolerance of plants. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2012 TI - OPDA-Ile – a new JA-Ile-independent signal? JO - Plant Signaling & Behavior PY - 2016 SP - e125364600 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 11 UR - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15592324.2016.1253646 DO - 10.1080/15592324.2016.125364 AB - AbstractExpression takes place for most of the jasmonic acid (JA)-induced genes in a COI1- dependent manner via perception of its conjugate JA-Ile in the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous genes and processes, which are preferentially induced COI1-independently by the precursor of JA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). After recent identification of the Ile-conjugate of OPDA, OPDA-Ile, biological activity of this compound could be unequivocally proven in terms of gene expression. Any interference of OPDA, JA, or JA-Ile in OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression could be excluded by using different genetic background. The data suggest individual signaling properties of OPDA-Ile. Future studies for analysis of an SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor-independent route of signaling are proposed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - INPR ID - 1839 TI - A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings JO - Plant Sci. PY - 2016 SP - 10-22 AU - Klopotek, Y. AU - Franken, P. AU - Klaering, H.-P. AU - Fischer, K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hajirezaei, M.-R. AU - Druege, U. VL - 243 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01689452 DO - 10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.11.001 AB - AbstractThe contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1854 TI - Activity regulation by heteromerization of Arabidopsis allene oxide cyclase family members. JO - Plants PY - 2016 SP - 3 AU - Otto, M. AU - Naumann, C. AU - Brandt,W. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause,B. VL - 5 UR - http://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/5/1/3 DO - 10.3390/plants5010003 AB - Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1846 TI - Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis. JO - PloS ONE PY - 2015 SP - e0124106 AU - Božić, D. AU - Papaefthimiou, D. AU - Brückner, K. AU - de Vos, R. C. H. AU - Tsoleridis, C. A. AU - Katsarou, D. AU - Papanikolaou, A. AU - Pateraki, I. AU - Chatzopoulou, F. M. AU - Dimitriadou, E. AU - Kostas, S. AU - Manzano, D. AU - Scheler, U. AU - Ferrer, A. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Makris, A. M. AU - Kampranis, S. C. AU - Kanellis, A. K. VL - 10 UR - http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0124106 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0124106 AB - Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1822 TI - Jasmonates act positively in adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings JO - BMC Plant Biololgy PY - 2015 SP - 229 AU - Lischewski, S. AU - Muchow, A. AU - Guthörl AU - D. AU - Hause AU - B. VL - 15 UR - DO - 10.1186/s12870-015-0615-1 AB - BackgroundPetunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach.ResultsTo reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (PhAOC)-RNAi construct. The transgenic plants exhibited strongly reduced PhAOC transcript and protein levels as well as diminished accumulation of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine after wounding in comparison to wild type and empty vector expressing plants. Reduced levels of endogenous jasmonates resulted in formation of lower numbers of ARs. However, this effect was not accompanied by altered levels of auxin and aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC, precursor of ethylene) or by impaired auxin and ethylene-induced gene expression. Neither activity of cell-wall invertases nor accumulation of soluble sugars was altered by jasmonate deficiency.ConclusionsDiminished numbers of AR in JA-deficient cuttings suggest that jasmonates act as positive regulators of AR formation in petunia wild type. However, wound-induced rise in jasmonate levels in petunia wild type cuttings seems not to be causal for increased auxin and ethylene levels and for sink establishment. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1768 TI - Evolution of root-specific carotenoid precursor pathways for apocarotenoid signal biogenesis JO - Plant Sci PY - 2015 SP - 1–10 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Stauder, R. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 233 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945214003045 DO - org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.12.017 AB - Various cleavage products of C40 carotenoid substrates are formed preferentially or exclusively in roots. Such apocarotenoid signaling or regulatory compounds differentially induced in roots during environmental stress responses including root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi include ABA, strigolactones and C13 α-ionol/C14 mycorradicin derivatives. The low carotenoid levels in roots raise the question of whether there is a regulated precursor supply channeled into apocarotenoid formation distinct from default carotenoid pathways. This review describes root-specific isogene components of carotenoid pathways toward apocarotenoid formation, highlighting a new PSY3 class of phytoene synthase genes in dicots. It is clearly distinct from the monocot PSY3 class co-regulated with ABA formation. At least two members of the exclusive dicot PSY3s are regulated by nutrient stress and mycorrhization. This newly recognized dicot PSY3 (dPSY3 vs. mPSY3 from monocots) class probably represents an ancestral branch in the evolution of the plant phytoene synthase family. The evolutionary history of PSY genes is compared with the evolution of MEP pathway isogenes encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthases (DXS), particularly DXS2, which is co-regulated with dPSY3s in mycorrhizal roots. Such stress-inducible isoforms for rate-limiting steps in root carotenogenesis might be components of multi-enzyme complexes committed to apocarotenoid rather than to carotenoid formation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 2045 TI - Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts. JO - New Phytol. PY - 2015 SP - 13-19 AU - Patron, N. J. AU - Orzaez, D. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Warzecha, H. AU - Matthewman, C. AU - Youles, M. AU - Raitskin, O. AU - Leveau, A. AU - Farré, G. AU - Rogers, C. AU - Smith, A. AU - Hibberd, J. AU - Webb, A. A. R. AU - Locke, J. AU - Schornack, S. AU - Ajioka, J. AU - Baulcombe, D. C. AU - Zipfel, C. AU - Kamoun, S. AU - Jones, J. D. G. AU - Kuhn, H. AU - Robatzek, S. AU - Van Esse, H. P. AU - Sanders, D. AU - Oldroyd, G. AU - Martin, C. AU - Field, R. AU - O’Connor, S. AU - Fox, S. AU - Wulff, B. AU - Miller, B. AU - Breakspear, A. AU - Radhakrishnan, G. AU - Delaux, P.-M. AU - Loqué, D. AU - Granell, A. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Shih, P. AU - Brutnell, T. P. AU - Quick, W. P. AU - Rischer, H. AU - Fraser, P. D. AU - Aharoni, A. AU - Raines, C. AU - South, P. F. AU - Ané, J.-M. AU - Hamberger, B. R. AU - Langdale, J. AU - Stougaard, J. AU - Bouwmeester, H. AU - Udvardi, M. AU - Murray, J. A. H. AU - Ntoukakis, V. AU - Schäfer, P. AU - Denby, K. AU - Edwards, K. J. AU - Osbourn, A. AU - Haseloff, J. VL - 208 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1469-8137 DO - 10.1111/nph.13532 AB - nventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1867 TI - Assembly of Multigene Constructs Using Golden Gate Cloning. T2 - Glyco-Engineering: Methods and Protocols PB - Methods Mol. Biol. PY - 2015 SP - 269-284 AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Werner, S. VL - 1321 UR - http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781493927593 SN - 978-1-4939-2760-9 DO - 10.1007/978-1-4939-2760-9_19. AB - Conceived with the intention of providing an array of strategies and technologies currently in use for glyco-engineering distinct living organisms, this book contains a wide range of methods being developed to control the composition of carbohydrates and the properties of proteins through manipulations on the production host rather than in the protein itself. The first five sections deal with host-specific glyco-engineering and contain chapters that provide protocols for modifications of the glycosylation pathway in bacteria, yeast, insect, plants and mammalian cells, while the last two sections explore alternative approaches to host glyco-engineering and selected protocols for the analysis of the N-glycans and glyco-profiling by mass spectrometry. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and extensive, Glyco-Engineering: Methods and Protocols offers vast options to help researchers to choose the expression system and approach that best suits their intended protein research or applications. A2 - Castilho, A C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1866 TI - “Self” and “Non-Self” in the control of phytoalexin biosynthesis: plant phospholipases A2 with alkaloid-specific molecular fingerprints. JO - Plant Cell PY - 2015 SP - 448-462 AU - Heinze, M. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Roos, W. VL - 27: UR - http://www.plantcell.org/ DO - 10.1105/tpc.114.135343 AB - The overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. We present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. Cultured cells of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) and Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial elicitors. In both plants, an elicitor-responsive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) at the plasma membrane generates signal molecules that initiate the induction of biosynthetic enzymes. The final alkaloids produced in the respective plant inhibit the respective PLA, a negative feedback that prevents continuous overexpression. The selective inhibition by alkaloids from the class produced in the “self” plant could be transferred to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana via recombinant expression of PLA2. The 3D homology model of each PLA2 displays a binding pocket that specifically accommodates alkaloids of the class produced by the same plant, but not of the other class; for example, C. roseus PLA2 only accommodates C. roseus alkaloids. The interaction energies of docked alkaloids correlate with their selective inhibition of PLA2 activity. The existence in two evolutionary distant plants of phospholipases A2 that discriminate “self-made” from “foreign” alkaloids reveals molecular fingerprints left in signal enzymes during the evolution of species-specific, cytotoxic phytoalexins. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1847 TI - The development of type VI glandular trichomes in the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and a related wild species S. habrochaites. JO - BMC Plant Biol. PY - 2015 SP - 15:289 AU - Bergau, N. AU - Bennewitz, S. AU - Syrowatka, F. AU - Hause, G. AU - Tissier AU - A. VL - 15 UR - http://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-015-0678-z DO - 10.1186/s12870-015-0678-z AB - BackgroundType VI glandular trichomes represent the most abundant trichome type on leaves and stems of tomato plants and significantly contribute to herbivore resistance, particularly in the wild species. Despite this, their development has been poorly studied so far. The goal of this study is to fill this gap. Using a variety of cell imaging techniques, a detailed record of the anatomy and developmental stages of type VI trichomes in the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and in a related wild species (S. habrochaites) is provided.ResultsIn both species, the development of these structures follows a highly reproducible cell division pattern. The two species differ in the shape of the trichome head which is round in S. habrochaites and like a four-leaf clover in S. lycopersicum, correlating with the presence of a large intercellular cavity in S. habrochaites where the produced metabolites accumulate. In both species, the junction between the intermediate cell and the four glandular cells constitute a breaking point facilitating the decapitation of the trichome and thereby the quick release of the metabolites. A strongly auto-fluorescent compound transiently accumulates in the early stages of development suggesting a potential role in the differentiation process. Finally, immuno-labelling with antibodies recognizing specific cell wall components indicate a key role of pectin and arabinogalactan components in the differentiation of type VI trichomes.ConclusionsOur observations explain the adaptive morphologies of type VI trichomes for metabolite storage and release and provide a framework for further studies of these important metabolic cellular factories. This is required to better exploit their potential, in particular for the breeding of pest resistance in tomato. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1845 TI - Arabidopsis thaliana isoprenyl diphosphate synthases produce the C25 intermediate geranylfarnesyl diphosphate. JO - Plant J. PY - 2015 SP - 847–859 AU - Nagel, R. AU - Bernholz, C. AU - Vranová, E. AU - Košuth, J. AU - Bergau, N. AU - Ludwig, S. AU - Wessjohann, L. AU - Gershenzon, J. AU - Tissier, A AU - Schmidt, A. VL - 84 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291365-313X DO - 10.1111/tpj.13064 AB - Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDSs) catalyze some of the most basic steps in terpene biosynthesis by producing the prenyl diphosphate precursors of each of the various terpenoid classes. Most plants investigated have distinct enzymes that produce the short-chain all-trans (E) prenyl diphosphates geranyl diphosphate (GDP, C10), farnesyl diphosphate (FDP, C15) or geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP, C20). In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, 15 trans-product-forming IDSs are present. Ten of these have recently been shown to produce GGDP by genetic complementation of a carotenoid pathway engineered into Escherichia coli. When verifying the product pattern of IDSs producing GGDP by a new LC-MS/MS procedure, we found that five of these IDSs produce geranylfarnesyl diphosphate (GFDP, C25) instead of GGDP as their major product in enzyme assays performed in vitro. Over-expression of one of the GFDP synthases in A. thaliana confirmed the production of GFDP in vivo. Enzyme assays with A. thaliana protein extracts from roots but not other organs showed formation of GFDP. Furthermore, GFDP itself was detected in root extracts. Subcellular localization studies in leaves indicated that four of the GFDP synthases were targeted to the plastoglobules of the chloroplast and one was targeted to the mitochondria. Sequence comparison and mutational studies showed that the size of the R group of the 5th amino acid residue N-terminal to the first aspartate-rich motif is responsible for C25 versus C20 product formation, with smaller R groups (Ala and Ser) resulting in GGDP (C20) as a product and a larger R group (Met) resulting in GFDP (C25). A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1769 TI - Differential spatio-temporal expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases regulates apocarotenoid fluxes during AM symbiosis JO - Plant Sci PY - 2015 SP - 59-69 AU - López-Ráez, J.A. AU - Fernández, I. AU - García. J.-M. AU - Berrio, E. AU - Bonfante, P. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Pozo, M. J. VL - 230 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945214002519 DO - org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.10.010 AB - Apocarotenoids are a class of compounds that play important roles in nature. In recent years, a prominent role for these compounds in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been shown. They are derived from carotenoids by the action of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzyme family. In the present study, using tomato as a model, the spatio-temporal expression pattern of the CCD genes during AM symbiosis establishment and functioning was investigated. In addition, the levels of the apocarotenoids strigolactones (SLs), C13 α-ionol and C14 mycorradicin (C13/C14) derivatives were analyzed. The results suggest an increase in SLs promoted by the presence of the AM fungus at the early stages of the interaction, which correlated with an induction of the SL biosynthesis gene SlCCD7. At later stages, induction of SlCCD7 and SlCCD1 expression in arbusculated cells promoted the production of C13/C14 apocarotenoid derivatives. We show here that the biosynthesis of apocarotenoids during AM symbiosis is finely regulated throughout the entire process at the gene expression level, and that CCD7 constitutes a key player in this regulation. Once the symbiosis is established, apocarotenoid flux would be turned towards the production of C13/C14 derivatives, thus reducing SL biosynthesis and maintaining a functional symbiosis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1807 TI - A library of synthetic transcription activator-like effector-activated promoters for coordinated orthogonal gene expression in plants JO - The Plant Journal PY - 2015 SP - 707–716 AU - Brückner, K. AU - Schäfer, P. AU - Weber, E. AU - Grützner, R. AU - Marillonnet, S. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 82 UR - DO - 10.1111/tpj.12843 AB - A library of synthetic promoters containing the binding site of a single designer transcription activator-like effector (dTALE) was constructed. The promoters contain a constant sequence, consisting of an 18-base long dTALE-binding site and a TATA box, flanked by degenerate sequences of 49 bases downstream and 19 bases upstream. Forty-three of these promoters were sequenced and tested in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana using a GUS reporter gene. The strength of expression of the promoters ranged from around 5% to almost 100% of the viral 35S promoter activity. We then demonstrated the utility of these promoters for metabolic engineering by transiently expressing three genes for the production of a plant diterpenoid in N. benthamiana. The simplicity of the promoter structure shows great promise for the development of genetic circuits, with wide potential applications in plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. KW - technical advance A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - INPR ID - 1805 TI - Evolutionarily conserved phenylpropanoid pattern on angiosperm pollen JO - Trends in Plant Science PY - 2015 SP - 212-218 AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 20(4) UR - DO - 10.1016/j.tplants.2015.01.011 AB - The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1795 TI - Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity. JO - J. Exp. Bot. PY - 2015 SP - 3339-3352 AU - Hazman, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Eiche, E. AU - Nick, P. AU - Riemann AU - M. VL - 66 UR - http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/66/11/3339.full.pdf+html DO - 10.1093/jxb/erv142 AB - Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild type. The aoc mutants were less sensitive to salt stress. Interestingly, both mutants accumulated smaller amounts of Na+ ions in their leaves, and showed better scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under salt stress. Leaves of the wild type and JA mutants accumulated similar levels of abscisic acid (ABA) under stress conditions, and the levels of JA and its amino acid conjugate, JA–isoleucine (JA-Ile), showed only subtle alterations in the wild type. In contrast, the wild type responded to salt stress by strong induction of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was not observed in the mutants. Transcript levels of representative salinity-induced genes were induced less in the JA mutants. The absence of 12-OPDA in the mutants correlated not only with a generally increased ROS-scavenging activity, but also with the higher activity of specific enzymes in the antioxidative pathway, such as glutathione S-transferase, and fewer symptoms of damage as, for example, indicated by lower levels of malondialdehyde. The data are interpreted in a model where the absence of OPDA enhanced the antioxidative power in mutant leaves. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1796 TI - Dissection of jasmonate functions in tomato stamen development by transcriptome and metabolome analyses. JO - BMC Biology PY - 2015 SP - 28 AU - Dobritzsch, S. AU - Weyhe, M. AU - Schubert, R. AU - Dindas, J. AU - Hause, G. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Hause, B. VL - 13:28 UR - http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/13/28 DO - 10.1186/s12915-015-0135-3 AB - BackgroundJasmonates are well known plant signaling components required for stress responses and development. A prominent feature of jasmonate biosynthesis or signaling mutants is the loss of fertility. In contrast to the male sterile phenotype of Arabidopsis mutants, the tomato mutant jai1-1 exhibits female sterility with additional severe effects on stamen and pollen development. Its senescence phenotype suggests a function of jasmonates in regulation of processes known to be mediated by ethylene. To test the hypothesis that ethylene involved in tomato stamen development is regulated by jasmonates, a temporal profiling of hormone content, transcriptome and metabolome of tomato stamens was performed using wild type and jai1-1.ResultsWild type stamens showed a transient increase of jasmonates that is absent in jai1-1. Comparative transcriptome analyses revealed a diminished expression of genes involved in pollen nutrition at early developmental stages of jai1-1 stamens, but an enhanced expression of ethylene-related genes at late developmental stages. This finding coincides with an early increase of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in jai1-1 and a premature pollen release from stamens, a phenotype similarly visible in an ethylene overproducing mutant. Application of jasmonates to flowers of transgenic plants affected in jasmonate biosynthesis diminished expression of ethylene-related genes, whereas the double mutant jai1-1 NeverRipe (ethylene insensitive) showed a complementation of jai1-1 phenotype in terms of dehiscence and pollen release.ConclusionsOur data suggest an essential role of jasmonates in the temporal inhibition of ethylene production to prevent premature desiccation of stamens and to ensure proper timing in flower development. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1764 TI - A catalytic triad – Lys-Asn-Asp – Is essential for the catalysis of the methyl transfer in plant cation-dependent O-methyltransferases JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2015 SP - 130-139 AU - Brandt, W. AU - Manke, K. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 113 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942214005500 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.12.018 AB - Crystal structure data of cation-dependent catechol O-methyltransferases (COMTs) from mammals and related caffeoyl coenzyme A OMTs (CCoAOMTs) from plants have suggested operative molecular mechanisms. These include bivalent cations that facilitate deprotonation of vicinal aromatic dihydroxy systems and illustrate a conserved arrangement of hydroxyl and carboxyl ligands consistent with the requirements of a metal-activated catalytic mechanism. The general concept of metal-dependent deprotonation via a complexed aspartate is only one part of a more pronounced proton relay, as shown by semiempirical and DFT quantum mechanical calculations and experimental validations. A previously undetected catalytic triad, consisting of Lys157-Asn181-Asp228 residues is required for complete methyl transfer in case of a cation-dependent phenylpropanoid and flavonoid OMT, as described in this report. This triad appears essential for efficient methyl transfer to catechol-like hydroxyl group in phenolics. The observation is consistent with a catalytic lysine in the case of mammalian COMTs, but jettisons existing assumptions on the initial abstraction of the meta-hydroxyl proton to the metal stabilizing Asp154 (PFOMT) or comparable Asp-carboxyl groups in type of cation-dependent enzymes in plants. The triad is conserved among all characterized plant CCoAOMT-like enzymes, which are required not only for methylation of soluble phenylpropanoids like coumarins or monolignol monomers, but is also present in the similar microbial and mammalian cation-dependent enzymes which methylate a comparable set of substrates. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1784 TI - The Calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatiallyrestricted alterations in Jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis JO - Plant Cell PY - 2015 SP - 591–60 AU - Matschi, S. AU - Hake, K. AU - Herde, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Romeis, T. VL - 27 UR - http://www.plantcell.org/search?author1=&fulltext=&pubdate_year=2015&volume=27&firstpage=591&submit=yes DO - 10.1105/tpc.15.00024 AB - Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1619 TI - Natural products – learning chemistry from plants. JO - Biotechnol. J. PY - 2014 SP - 326-336 AU - Staniek, A. AU - Bouwmeester, H. AU - Fraser, P. D. AU - Kayser, O. AU - Martens, S. AU - Tissier, A. AU - van der Krol, S. AU - Wessjohann, L. AU - Warzecha, H. VL - 9 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biot.201300059/full DO - 10.1002/biot.201300059 AB - Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragrances and flavors, medicines, as well as industrial chemicals. As the intricate structures of PNPs often cannot be mimicked by chemical synthesis, the original plant providers constitute the sole source for their industrial, large-scale production. However, sufficient supply is not guaranteed for all molecules of interest, making the development of alternative production systems a priority. Modern techniques, such as genome mining and thorough biochemical analysis, have helped us gain preliminary understanding of the enzymatic formation of the valuable ingredients in planta. Herein, we review recent advances in the application of biocatalytical processes, facilitating generation of complex PNPs through utilization of plant-derived specific enzymes and combinatorial biochemistry. We further evaluate the options of employing heterologous organisms harboring PNP biosynthetic pathways for the production of secondary metabolites of interest. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1640 TI - Jasmonsäure – ein universelles Pflanzenhormon: Blütenduft, Abwehr, Entwicklung JO - Biologie in unserer Zeit PY - 2014 SP - 164 - 171 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 44 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biuz.201410535/pdf DO - 10.1002/biuz.201410535 AB - Jasmonsäure (JA) und ihre Metaboliten kommen in allen niederen und höheren Pflanzen vor. Sie sind universell wirksame, aus Lipiden gebildete Signalstoffe bei der Abwehr von biotischem und abiotischem Stress sowie in der pflanzlichen Entwicklung. Rezeptor und Komponenten von JA–Signalketten wurden identifiziert. In der Entwicklung von Blüten, Früchten, Samen, Trichomen oder in der Abwehr von Insekten und Pathogenen treten ähnliche JA-vermittelte Signalproteine auf, die eine Feinregulation der Prozesse erlauben und eine Verbindung (cross-talk) zu anderenPflanzenhormonen aufweisen. A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1718 TI - Specialized plant metabolites: Diversity and biosynthesis T2 - Ecological Biochemistry: environmental and Interspecies Interactions PB - PY - 2014 SP - 14-37 AU - Tissier, A. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Vogt T. VL - UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527686063.ch2/summary SN - 978-3-527-31650-2 DO - 10.1002/9783527686063.ch2 AB - Plant secondary metabolites, also termed specialized plant metabolites, currently comprise more than 200 000 natural products that are all based on a few biosynthetic pathways and key primary metabolites. Some pathways like flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis are universally distributed in the plant kingdom, whereas others like alkaloid or cyanogenic glycoside biosynthesis are restricted to a limited set of taxa. Diversification is achieved by an array of mechanisms at the genetic and enzymatic level including gene duplications, substrate promiscuity of enzymes, cell-specific regulatory systems, together with modularity and combinatorial aspects. Specialized metabolites reflect adaptations to a specific environment. The observed diversity illustrates the heterogeneity and multitude of ecological habitats and niches that plants have colonized so far and constitutes a reservoir of potential new metabolites that may provide adaptive advantage in the face of environmental changes. The code that connects the observed chemical diversity to this ecological diversity is largely unknown. One way to apprehend this diversity is to realize its tremendous plasticity and evolutionary potential. This chapter presents an overview of the most widespread and popular secondary metabolites, which provide a definite advantage to adapt to or to colonize a particular environment, making the boundary between the “primary” and the “secondary” old fashioned and blurry. A2 - Krauß, G. J.; Nies, D. H. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Molecular Signal Processing ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1745 TI - Quick and clean cloning T2 - DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods. PB - Meth Mol Biol PY - 2014 SP - 37-48 AU - Thieme, F., Marillonnet, S. VL - 1116 UR - https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-62703-764-8_3 SN - 978-1-62703-763-1 DO - 10.1007/978-1-62703-764-8_3 AB - Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells. A2 - Valla, S.; R. Lale, R C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1654 TI - Isoprenoid and metabolite profiling of plant trichomes T2 - Methods in Molecular Biology PB - PY - 2014 SP - 189-202 AU - Balcke, G. U. AU - Bennewitz, S. AU - Zabel, S. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 1153 UR - https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-4939-0606-2_13 SN - 978-1-4939-0606-2 DO - 10.1007/978-1-4939-0606-2_13 AB - Plant glandular trichomes are specialized secretory structures located on the surface of the aerial parts of plants with large biosynthetic capacity, often with terpenoids as output molecules. The collection of plant trichomes requires a method to separate trichomes from leaf epidermal tissues. For metabolite profiling, trichome tissue needs to be rapidly quenched in order to maintain the indigenous state of intracellular intermediates. Appropriate extraction and chromatographic separation methods must be available, which address the wide-ranging polarity of metabolites. In this chapter, a protocol for trichome harvest using a frozen paint brush is presented. A work flow for broad-range metabolite profiling using LC-MS2 analysis is described, which is applicable to assess very hydrophilic isoprenoid precursors as well as more hydrophobic metabolites from trichomes and other plant tissues. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1578 TI - Do jasmonates play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced local bioprotection of Medicago truncatula against root rot disease caused by Aphanomyces euteiches? JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2014 SP - 45-54 AU - Hilou, A. AU - Zhang, H. AU - Franken, P. AU - Hause, B. VL - 24 UR - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00572-013-0513-z DO - 10.1007/s00572-013-0513-z AB - Bioprotective effects of mycorrhization with two different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis, against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of root rot in legumes, were studied in Medicago truncatula using phenotypic and molecular markers. Previous inoculation with an AM-fungus reduced disease symptoms as well as the amount of pathogen within roots, as determined by the levels of A. euteiches rRNA or transcripts of the gene sterol C24 reductase. Inoculation with R. irregularis was as efficient as that with F. mosseae. To study whether jasmonates play a regulatory role in bioprotection of M. truncatula by the AM fungi, composite plants harboring transgenic roots were used to modulate the expression level of the gene encoding M. truncatula allene oxide cyclase 1, a key enzyme in jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Neither an increase nor a reduction in allene oxide cyclase levels resulted in altered bioprotection by the AM fungi against root infection by A. euteiches. These data suggest that jasmonates do not play a major role in the local bioprotective effect of AM fungi against the pathogen A. euteiches in M. truncatula roots. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1735 TI - Golden gate cloning. In: DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods T2 - DNA Cloning and Assembly Method. (Meth. Mol. Biol.; 1116) PB - PY - 2014 SP - 119-131 AU - Engler, C. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - UR - http://www.springer.com/biomed/human+genetics/book/978-1-62703-763-1 SN - 978-1-62703-763-1 AB - In DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used for DNA cloning and make cloning procedures faster, more reliable and also suitable for high-throughput handling. These include methods and protocols that are based on several mechanisms including type II and IIS restriction enzymes, single stranded annealing, sequence overlap, and recombination. A2 - Valla, S,; Lale, R. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1620 TI - Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2014 SP - 52-64 AU - Brückner, K. AU - Božić, D. AU - Manzano, D. AU - Papaefthimiou, D. AU - Pateraki, I. AU - Scheler, U. AU - Ferrer, A. AU - de Vos, R. C. H. AU - Kanellis, A. K. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 101 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003194221400065X DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.01.021 AB - Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1702 TI - Jasmonic acid and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid control different aspects of constitutive and induced herbivore defenses in tomato JO - Plant Physiology PY - 2014 SP - 396-410 AU - Bosch, M. AU - Wright, L. P. AU - Gershenzon, J. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schaller, A. AU - Stintzi, A. VL - 166 UR - http://www.plantphysiol.org/search?author1=&fulltext=&pubdate_year=2014&volume=166&firstpage=396&submit=yes DO - 10.​1104/​pp.​114.​237388 AB - The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. In order to assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato, we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase (OPR3) by RNA interference. Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile-dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant mono- and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and much delayed as compared to development on the JA/JA-Ile insensitive (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of COI1 in Arabidopsis, is required for defense while the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1734 TI - A Golden Gate modular cloning toolbox for plants. JO - ACS Synth Biol PY - 2014 SP - 839–843 AU - Engler, C. AU - Youles, M. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Ehnert, T.-M. AU - Werner, S. AU - Jones, J. D. G. AU - Patron, N. J. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 3 UR - http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/sb4001504 DO - 10.1021/sb4001504 AB - Plant Synthetic Biology requires robust and efficient methods for assembling multigene constructs. Golden Gate cloning provides a precision module-based cloning technique for facile assembly of multiple genes in one construct. We present here a versatile resource for plant biologists comprising a set of cloning vectors and 96 standardized parts to enable Golden Gate construction of multigene constructs for plant transformation. Parts include promoters, untranslated sequences, reporters, antigenic tags, localization signals, selectable markers, and terminators. The comparative performance of parts in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana is discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1737 TI - Bacteria-Triggered Systemic Immunity in Barley Is Associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs But Not with Salicylic Acid1[C]W] JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2014 SP - 2133-2151 AU - Dey, S. AU - Wenig, M. AU - Langen, G. AU - Sharma, S. AU - Kugler, K. G. AU - Knappe, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Bichlmeier, M. AU - Babaeizad, V. AU - Imani, J. AU - Janzik, I. AU - Stempfl, T. AU - Hückelhoven, R. AU - Kogel, K.-H. AU - Mayer, K. F. X. AU - Vlot, C. VL - 166 UR - http://www.plantphysiol.org/search?author1=&fulltext=&pubdate_year=2014&volume=166&firstpage=2133&submit=yes DO - 10.1104/pp.114.249276 AB - Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1651 TI - Through the doors of perception to function in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses JO - New Phytol. PY - 2014 SP - 833-840 AU - Bucher, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Krajinski, F. AU - Küster, H. VL - 204 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12862/abstract DO - 10.1111/nph.12862 AB - The formation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is initiated by the bidirectional exchange of diffusible molecules. While strigolactone hormones, secreted from plant roots, stimulate hyphal branching and fungal metabolism, fungal short-chain chitin oligomers as well as sulfated and nonsulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (s/nsMyc-LCOs) elicit pre-symbiosis responses in the host. Fungal LCO signals are structurally related to rhizobial Nod-factor LCOs. Genome-wide expression studies demonstrated that defined sets of genes were induced by Nod-, sMyc- and nsMyc-LCOs, indicating LCO-specific perception in the pre-symbiosis phase. During hyphopodium formation and the subsequent root colonization, cross-talk between plant roots and AM fungi also involves phytohormones. Notably, gibberellins control arbuscule formation via DELLA proteins, which themselves serve as positive regulators of arbuscule formation. The establishment of arbuscules is accompanied by a substantial transcriptional and post-transcriptional reprogramming of host roots, ultimately defining the unique protein composition of arbuscule-containing cells. Based on cellular expression profiles, key checkpoints of AM development as well as candidate genes encoding transcriptional regulators and regulatory microRNAs were identified. Detailed functional analyses of promoters specified short motifs sufficient for cell-autonomous gene regulation in cells harboring arbuscules, and suggested simultaneous, multi-level regulation of the mycorrhizal phosphate uptake pathway by integrating AM symbiosis and phosphate starvation response signaling. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1711 TI - Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains. JO - J Exp Bot PY - 2014 SP - 5291-5304 AU - Weier, D. AU - Thiel, J. AU - Kohl, S. AU - Tarkowská, D. AU - Strnad, M. AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Weschke, W. AU - Weber, H. AU - Hause, B. VL - 65 UR - http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/ DO - 10.1093/jxb/eru289 AB - In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongatedbut not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expressionof specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances inseg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1724 TI - Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings JO - Front Plant Sci. PY - 2014 SP - 494 AU - Druege, U. AU - Franken, P. AU - Lischewski, S. AU - Ahkami, A. H. AU - Zerche, S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hajirezaei, M.-R. VL - 5 UR - http://community.frontiersin.org/people/UweDruege/78397 DO - 10.3389/fpls.2014.00494 AB - Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1674 TI - Influence of Elastin-Like Polypeptide and Hydrophobin on Recombinant Hemagglutinin Accumulations in Transgenic Tobacco Plants JO - PLoS ONE PY - 2014 SP - e99347 AU - Phan, H. T., Hause, B., Hause, G., Arcalis, E., Stoger, E., Maresch, D., Altmann, F., Joensuu, J. & Conrad, U. VL - 9 UR - DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0099347 AB - Fusion protein strategies are useful tools to enhance expression and to support the development of purification technologies. The capacity of fusion protein strategies to enhance expression was explored in tobacco leaves and seeds. C-terminal fusion of elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) to influenza hemagglutinin under the control of either the constitutive CaMV 35S or the seed-specific USP promoter resulted in increased accumulation in both leaves and seeds compared to the unfused hemagglutinin. The addition of a hydrophobin to the C-terminal end of hemagglutinin did not significantly increase the expression level. We show here that, depending on the target protein, both hydrophobin fusion and ELPylation combined with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting induced protein bodies in leaves as well as in seeds. The N-glycosylation pattern indicated that KDEL sequence-mediated retention of leaf-derived hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin-hydrophobin fusions were not completely retained in the ER. In contrast, hemagglutinin-ELP from leaves contained only the oligomannose form, suggesting complete ER retention. In seeds, ER retention seems to be nearly complete for all three constructs. An easy and scalable purification method for ELPylated proteins using membrane-based inverse transition cycling could be applied to both leaf- and seed-expressed hemagglutinins. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - INPR ID - 1649 TI - The H+-ATPase HA1 of Medicago truncatula Is Essential for Phosphate Transport and Plant Growth during Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis JO - Plant Cell PY - 2014 SP - 1808-1817 AU - Krajinski, F. AU - Courty, P. E. AU - Sieh, D. AU - Franken, P. AU - Zhang, H. AU - Bucher, M. AU - Gerlach, N., Kryvoruchko, I., Zoeller, D. AU - Udvardi, M. AU - Hause, B. VL - 26 UR - http://www.plantcell.org/content/26/4/1808.full.pdf+html?sid=6fe07eeb-1b48-4c41-aba9-1c94b7d23b01 DO - 10.1105/tpc.113.120436 AB - A key feature of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is improved phosphorus nutrition of the host plant via the mycorrhizal pathway, i.e., the fungal uptake of Pi from the soil and its release from arbuscules within root cells. Efficient transport of Pi from the fungus to plant cells is thought to require a proton gradient across the periarbuscular membrane (PAM) that separates fungal arbuscules from the host cell cytoplasm. Previous studies showed that the H+-ATPase gene HA1 is expressed specifically in arbuscule-containing root cells of Medicago truncatula. We isolated a ha1-2 mutant of M. truncatula and found it to be impaired in the development of arbuscules but not in root colonization by Rhizophagus irregularis hyphae. Artificial microRNA silencing of HA1 recapitulated this phenotype, resulting in small and truncated arbuscules. Unlike the wild type, the ha1-2 mutant failed to show a positive growth response to mycorrhizal colonization under Pi-limiting conditions. Uptake experiments confirmed that ha1-2 mutants are unable to take up phosphate via the mycorrhizal pathway. Increased pH in the apoplast of abnormal arbuscule-containing cells of the ha1-2 mutant compared with the wild type suggests that HA1 is crucial for building a proton gradient across the PAM and therefore is indispensible for the transfer of Pi from the fungus to the plant. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1717 TI - Microscopic techniques and single cell analysis. T2 - Ecological Biochemistry – Environmental and Interspecies Interactions PB - PY - 2014 SP - 367-382. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hause, G. VL - UR - SN - 978-3-527-31650-2 AB - The first stand-alone textbook for at least ten years on this increasingly hot topic in times of global climate change and sustainability in ecosystems.Ecological biochemistry refers to the interaction of organisms with their abiotic environment and other organisms by chemical means. Biotic and abiotic factors determine the biochemical flexibility of organisms, which otherwise easily adapt to environmental changes by altering their metabolism. Sessile plants, in particular, have evolved intricate biochemical response mechanisms to fit into a changing environment. This book covers the chemistry behind these interactions, bottom up from the atomic to the system’s level.An introductory part explains the physico-chemical basis and biochemical roots of living cells, leading to secondary metabolites as crucial bridges between organisms and the respective ecosystem. The focus then shifts to the biochemical interactions of plants, fungi and bacteria within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the aim of linking biochemical insights to ecological research, also in human-influenced habitats.A section is devoted to methodology, which allows network-based analyses of molecular processes underlying systems phenomena. A2 - Krauß, G. J.; Nies, D. H. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1716 TI - Chemical inhibitor of jasmonate signaling targets JAR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. JO - NAT CHEM BIOL PY - 2014 SP - 830-836 AU - Meesters, C. AU - Mönig, T. AU - Oeljeklaus, J. AU - Krahn, D. AU - Westfall, C. S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Jez, J. M. AU - Kaiser, M. AU - Kombrink, E. A. VL - 10 UR - http://www.nature.com/nchembio/index.html DO - 10.1038/nchembio.1591 AB - Jasmonates are lipid-derived plant hormones that regulate plant defenses and numerous developmental processes. Although the biosynthesis and molecular function of the most active form of the hormone, ​(+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (​JA-Ile), have been unraveled, it remains poorly understood how the diversity of bioactive jasmonates regulates such a multitude of plant responses. Bioactive analogs have been used as chemical tools to interrogate the diverse and dynamic processes of ​jasmonate action. By contrast, small molecules impairing ​jasmonate functions are currently unknown. Here, we report on ​jarin-1 as what is to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitor of ​jasmonate responses that was identified in a chemical screen using Arabidopsis thaliana. ​Jarin-1 impairs the activity of ​JA-Ile synthetase, thereby preventing the synthesis of the active hormone, ​JA-Ile, whereas closely related enzymes are not affected. Thus, ​jarin-1 may serve as a useful chemical tool in search for missing regulatory components and further dissection of the complex jasmonate signaling networks A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1586 TI - A single amino acid determines position specificity of an Arabidopsis thaliana CCoAOMT-like O-methyltransferase. JO - FEBS Lett PY - 2013 SP - 683-689 AU - Wils, C. R. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Manke, K. & Vogt, T. VL - 587 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1016/j.febslet.2013.01.040/full DO - 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.01.040 AB - Caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT)-like proteins from plants display a conserved position specificity towards the meta-position of aromatic vicinal dihydroxy groups, consistent with the methylation pattern observed in vivo. A CCoAOMT-like enzyme identified from Arabidopsis thaliana encoded by the gene At4g26220 shows a strong preference for methylating the para position of flavanones and dihydroflavonols, whereas flavones and flavonols are methylated in the meta-position. Sequence alignments and homology modelling identified several unique amino acids compared to motifs of other CCoAOMT-like enzymes. Mutation of a single glycine, G46 towards a tyrosine was sufficient for a reversal of the unusual para- back to meta-O-methylation of flavanones and dihydroflavonols. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 2130 TI - Role of carotenoid metabolism in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal symbiosis. T2 - Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere. PB - PY - 2013 SP - 513-524 AU - Walter, M. H. VL - UR - SN - 9781118297674 DO - 10.1002/9781118297674.ch48 AB - A2 - F. de Bruijn C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1539 TI - Brassinosteroids suppress rice defense against root knot nematodes through antagonism with the jasmonate pathway. JO - Mol Plant Microbe In PY - 2013 SP - 106-115 AU - Nahar, K. AU - Kyndt, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Höfte, M. AU - Gheysen, G. VL - 26 UR - DO - 10.1094/MPMI-05-12-0108-FI AB - The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant?pathogen interactions. Next to their well-known developmental role, brassinosteroids (BR) were recently found to be involved in plant innate immunity. In this study, we examined the role of BR in rice (Oryza sativa) innate immunity during infection with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, and we studied the inter-relationship with the jasmonate (JA) pathway. Exogenous epibrassinolide (BL) supply at low concentrations induced susceptibility in the roots whereas high concentrations of BL enforced systemic defense against this nematode. Upon high exogenous BL supply on the shoot, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) confirmed a strong feedback inhibitory effect, leading to reduced BR biosynthesis in the root. Moreover, we demonstrate that the immune suppressive effect of BR is at least partly due to negative cross-talk with the JA pathway. Mutants in the BR biosynthesis or signaling pathway accumulate slightly higher levels of the immediate JA-precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and qRT-PCR data showed that the BR and JA pathway are mutually antagonistic in rice roots. Collectively, these results suggest that the balance between the BR and JA pathway is an effective regulator of the outcome of the rice?M. graminicola interaction. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1553 TI - Evolution of a complex locus for terpene biosynthesis in Solanum. JO - Plant Cell PY - 2013 SP - 2022-2036 AU - Matsuba, Y. AU - Nguyen, T.T.H. AU - Wiegert, K. AU - Falara, V. AU - Gonzales-Vigil, E. AU - Leong, B. AU - Schäfer, P. AU - Kudrna, D. AU - Wing, R.A. AU - Bolger, A.M. AU - Usadel, B. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Fernie, A.R. AU - Barry, C.S. AU - Pichersky, E. VL - 25 UR - DO - ​10.​1105/​tpc.​113.​111013 AB - Functional gene clusters, containing two or more genes encoding different enzymes for the same pathway, are sometimes observed in plant genomes, most often when the genes specify the synthesis of specialized defensive metabolites. Here, we show that a cluster of genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; Solanaceae) contains genes for terpene synthases (TPSs) that specify the synthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes from cis-prenyl diphosphates, substrates that are synthesized by enzymes encoded by cis-prenyl transferase (CPT) genes also located within the same cluster. The monoterpene synthase genes in the cluster likely evolved from a diterpene synthase gene in the cluster by duplication and divergence. In the orthologous cluster in Solanum habrochaites, a new sesquiterpene synthase gene was created by a duplication event of a monoterpene synthase followed by a localized gene conversion event directed by a diterpene synthase gene. The TPS genes in the Solanum cluster encoding cis-prenyl diphosphate–utilizing enzymes are closely related to a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; Solanaceae) diterpene synthase encoding Z-abienol synthase (Nt-ABS). Nt-ABS uses the substrate copal-8-ol diphosphate, which is made from the all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate by copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase (Nt-CPS2). The Solanum gene cluster also contains an ortholog of Nt-CPS2, but it appears to encode a nonfunctional protein. Thus, the Solanum functional gene cluster evolved by duplication and divergence of TPS genes, together with alterations in substrate specificity to utilize cis-prenyl diphosphates and through the acquisition of CPT genes. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1609 TI - Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate influences PIN polarization by controlling clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking in Arabidopsis. JO - Plant Cell PY - 2013 SP - 4894-4911 AU - Ischebeck, T., Werner, S., Krishnamoorthy, P., Lerche, J., Meijón, M., Stenzel, I., Löfke, C., Wiessner, T., Im, Y. J., Perera, I. Y., Iven, T., Feussner, I., Busch, W., Boss, W. F., Teichmann, T., Hause, B., Persson, S. & Ingo Heilmann, I. VL - 25 UR - http://www.plantcell.org/content/25/12/4894 DO - 10.1105/tpc.113.116582 AB - The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1535 TI - Cell-specific detection of jasmonates by means of immunocytological approach. T2 - Jasmonate Signaling. (Meth. Mol. Biol.; 1011) PB - PY - 2013 SP - 135-144 AU - Hause, B. AU - Mielke, K. AU - Forner, S. VL - UR - http://link.springer.com/bookseries/7651 SN - 978-1-62703-413-5 DO - 10.1007/978-1-62703-414-2_11 AB - To determine the location of specific molecules within tissues or cells, immunological techniques are frequently used. However, immunolocalization of small molecules, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive amino acid conjugate, JA-isoleucine, requires proper fixation and embedding methods as well as specific antibodies. In this chapter, we present a method to prepare plant tissues for the detection of jasmonates, including the chemical fixation to immobilize JA within the tissue, the subsequent embedding in a suitable medium, and the immunolabeling procedure itself. A2 - Goossens, A.; Pauwels, L. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1529 TI - An UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of cell wall phenolics in Brassica napus seeds JO - J Agricult Food Chem PY - 2013 SP - 1219-1227 AU - Frolov, A. AU - Henning, A. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Strack, D. VL - 61 (6) UR - http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf3042648 DO - 10.1021/jf3042648 AB - The seed residues left after pressing of rapeseed oil are rich in proteins and could be used for human nutrition and animal feeding. These press cakes contain, however, antinutritives, with fiber being the most abundant one. The analysis of fiber phenolic component (localized to seed coat cell walls) is, therefore, important in breeding and food quality control. However, correct structure and content assignments of cell wall-bound phenolics are challenging due to their low stability during sample preparation. Here, a novel LC-MS/MS-based method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 66 cell wall-bound phenolics and their derivatives is described. The method was internally standardized, corrected for degradation effects during sample preparation, and cross-validated with a well-established UV-based procedure. This approach was successfully applied to the analysis of cell wall phenolic patterns in different B. napus cultivars and proved to be suitable for marker compound search as well as assay development. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1720 TI - Combinatorial DNA assembly using Golden Gate cloning. T2 - Synthetic biology.(Meth. Mol. Biol.; 1073) PB - PY - 2013 SP - 141-156 AU - Engler, C. AU - Marillonnet, S VL - 1073 UR - https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-62703-625-2_12 SN - 978-1-62703-624-5 DO - 10.1007/978-1-62703-625-2_12 AB - A basic requirement for synthetic biology is the availability of efficient DNA assembly methods. We have previously reported the development of Golden Gate cloning, a method that allows parallel assembly of multiple DNA fragments in a one-tube reaction. Golden Gate cloning can be used for different levels of construct assembly: from gene fragments to complete gene coding sequences, from basic genetic elements to full transcription units, and finally from transcription units to multigene constructs. We provide here a protocol for DNA assembly using Golden Gate cloning, taking as an example the level of assembly of gene fragments to complete coding sequences, a level of cloning that can be used to perform DNA shuffling. Such protocol requires the following steps: (1) selecting fusion sites within parental sequences (sites at which parental sequences will be recombined), (2) amplifying all DNA fragments by PCR to add flanking restriction sites, (3) cloning the amplified fragments in intermediate constructs, and (4) assembling all or selected sets of intermediate constructs in a compatible recipient vector using a one-pot restriction-ligation. A2 - Polizzi, K. M. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1605 TI - High-level diterpene production by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana JO - Plant Meth PY - 2013 SP - AU - Brückner, K. & Tissier, A. VL - 9:46 UR - https://plantmethods.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4811-9-46 DO - 10.1186/1746-4811-9-46 AB - BackgroundCharacterization of plant terpene synthases is typically done by production of recombinant enzymes in Escherichia coli. This is often difficult due to solubility and codon usage issues. Furthermore, plant terpene synthases which are targeted to the plastids, such as diterpene synthases, have to be shortened in a more or less empirical approach to improve expression. We report here an optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana for plant diterpene synthase expression and product analysis.ResultsAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression of plant diterpene synthases in N. benthamiana led to the accumulation of diterpenes within 3 days of infiltration and with a maximum at 5 days. Over 50% of the products were exported onto the leaf surface, thus considerably facilitating the analysis by reducing the complexity of the extracts. The robustness of the method was tested by expressing three different plant enzymes, cembratrien-ol synthase from Nicotiana sylvestris, casbene synthase from Ricinus communis and levopimaradiene synthase from Gingko biloba. Furthermore, co-expression of a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase from tomato and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from tobacco led to a 3.5-fold increase in the amount of cembratrien-ol produced, with maximum yields reaching 2500 ng/cm2.ConclusionWith this optimized method for diterpene synthase expression and product analysis, a single infiltrated leaf of N. benthamiana would be sufficient to produce quantities required for the structure elucidation of unknown diterpenes. The method will also be of general use for gene function discovery, pathway reconstitution and metabolic engineering of diterpenoid biosynthesis in plants. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1606 TI - Natural products – modifying metabolite pathways in plants JO - Biotech. J. PY - 2013 SP - 1159-1171 AU - Staniek, A., Bouwmeester, H., Fraser, P.D., Kayser, O., Martens, S., Tissier, A., van der Krol, S., Wessjohann, L., & Warzecha, H. VL - 8 UR - DO - 10.1002/biot.201300224 AB - The diversity of plant natural product (PNP) molecular structures is reflected in the variety of biochemical and genetic pathways that lead to their formation and accumulation. Plant secondary metabolites are important commodities, and include fragrances, colorants, and medicines. Increasing the extractable amount of PNPs through plant breeding, or more recently by means of metabolic engineering, is a priority. The prerequisite for any attempt at metabolic engineering is a detailed knowledge of the underlying biosynthetic and regulatory pathways in plants. Over the past few decades, an enormous body of information about the biochemistry and genetics of biosynthetic pathways involved in PNP production has been generated. In this review, we focus on the three large classes of plant secondary metabolites: terpenoids (or isoprenoids), phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids. All three provide excellent examples of the tremendous efforts undertaken to boost our understanding of biosynthetic pathways, resulting in the first successes in plant metabolic engineering. We further consider what essential information is still missing, and how future research directions could help achieve the rational design of plants as chemical factories for high-value products. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1612 TI - Hypoxia and oxygenation induce a metabolic switch between pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis in glioma stem like cells JO - Acta Neuropathol PY - 2013 SP - 763-780 AU - Kathagen, A. AU - Schulte, A. AU - Balcke, G. AU - Phillips, H. S. AU - Martens, T. AU - Matschke, J. AU - Günther, H. S. AU - Soriano, R. AU - Modrusan, Z. AU - Sandmann, T. AU - Kuhl, C. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Holz, M. AU - Krawinkel, L. A. AU - Glatzel, M. AU - Westphal, M. AU - Lamszus, K. VL - 126 UR - http://link.springer.com/search?query=Balcke&search-within=Journal&facet-journal-id=401 DO - 10.1007/s00401-013-1173-y AB - Fluctuations in oxygen tension during tissue remodeling impose a major metabolic challenge in human tumors. Stem-like tumor cells in glioblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor, possess extraordinary metabolic flexibility, enabling them to initiate growth even under non-permissive conditions. We identified a reciprocal metabolic switch between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glycolysis in glioblastoma stem-like (GS) cells. Expression of PPP enzymes is upregulated by acute oxygenation but downregulated by hypoxia, whereas glycolysis enzymes, particularly those of the preparatory phase, are regulated inversely. Glucose flux through the PPP is reduced under hypoxia in favor of flux through glycolysis. PPP enzyme expression is elevated in human glioblastomas compared to normal brain, especially in highly proliferative tumor regions, whereas expression of parallel preparatory phase glycolysis enzymes is reduced in glioblastomas, except for strong upregulation in severely hypoxic regions. Hypoxia stimulates GS cell migration but reduces proliferation, whereas oxygenation has opposite effects, linking the metabolic switch to the “go or grow” potential of the cells. Our findings extend Warburg’s observation that tumor cells predominantly utilize glycolysis for energy production, by suggesting that PPP activity is elevated in rapidly proliferating tumor cells but suppressed by acute severe hypoxic stress, favoring glycolysis and migration to protect cells against hypoxic cell damage. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1509 TI - Jasmonates in flower and seed development JO - Biochimie PY - 2013 SP - 79-85 AU - Wasternack C. AU - Forner S. AU - Strnad M. & Hause B. VL - 95 UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22705387 DO - 10.1016/j.biochi.2012.06.005 AB - Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1546 TI - Control of plastidial isoprenoid precursor supply: Divergent 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) isogenes regulate the allocation to primary and secondary metabolism T2 - Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches Springer New York PB - PY - 2013 SP - 251-270 AU - Walter, M.H., Floss, D.S., Paetzold, H., Manke, K., Vollrath, J., Brandt, W. & Strack, D. VL - UR - http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781461440628 SN - 978-1-4614-4062-8 DO - 10.1007/978-1-4614-4063-5 AB - A2 - T.J. Bach, M. Rohmer eds. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1552 TI - Tobacco trichomes as a platform for terpenoid biosynthesis engineering. In Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concept and Experimental Approaches. T2 - Tobacco trichomes as a platform for terpenoid biosynthesis engineering. In Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concept and Experimental Approaches. PB - T. J. Bach and M. Rohmer (eds.), Springer New York PY - 2013 SP - 271-283 AU - Tissier, A. AU - Sallaud, C. AU - Rontein, D. VL - UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1551 TI - Reverse transcription of 18S rRNA with Poly(dT)18 and other homopolymers. JO - Plant Mol Biol Rep PY - 2013 SP - 55-63 AU - Bogdanović, M.D. AU - Dragićević, M.B. AU - Tanić, N.T. AU - Todorović, S.I. AU - Mišić, D.M. AU - Živković, S.T. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Simonović, A.D. VL - 31 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1536 TI - Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany JO - Annals of Botany PY - 2013 SP - 1021-1058 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 111 UR - DO - 10.1093/aob/mct067 AB - Background: Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as indevelopment. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to differentmetabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling includingits receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stressresponses and development.Scope: The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New dataof the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception andsignalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens,in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception.Conclusions: The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN(JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of thejasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature ofnetworks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can beaddressed. A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1594 TI - Benno Parthier und die Jasmonatforschung in Halle T2 - Benno Parthier und die Jasmonatforschung in Halle PB - Nova Acta Leopoldina, NF Supplementum PY - 2013 SP - 29-38 AU - Wasternack, C. & Hause, B. VL - 28 UR - SN - ISBN 978-3-8047-3209-4 AB - A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1414 TI - Role of carotenoid metabolism in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis T2 - Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere PB - John Wiley&Sons Ltd. PY - 2013 SP - 513-524 AU - Walter, M.H. VL - UR - AB - A2 - De Bruijn, F. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1577 TI - Analyzing the soybean transcriptome during autoregulation of mycorrhization identifies the transcription factors GmNF-YA1a/b as positive regulators of arbuscular mycorrhization. JO - Genome Biol PY - 2013 SP - AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Gresshoff, P.M. AU - Hause, B. VL - 14:R62 UR - DO - 10.1186/gb-2013-14-6-r62 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1378 TI - Role of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in tomato embryo development. JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2012 SP - 1715-1727 AU - Goetz, S. AU - Hellwege, A. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Kutter, C. AU - Hauptmann, V. AU - Forner, S. AU - Mc Caig, B. AU - Hause, G. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 158 (4) UR - http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/158/4/1715.abstract?sid=15b792ec-f1c9-4754-9157-00e7f5042900 AB - Oxylipins including jasmonates are signaling compounds in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) most mutants affected in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are male sterile, whereas the JA-insensitive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant jai1 is female sterile. The diminished seed formation in jai1 together with the ovule-specific accumulation of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which correlates with elevated levels of JAs, suggest a role of oxylipins in tomato flower/seed development. Here, we show that 35S::SlAOC-RNAi lines with strongly reduced AOC in ovules exhibited reduced seed set similarly to the jai1 plants. Investigation of embryo development of wild-type tomato plants showed preferential occurrence of AOC promoter activity and AOC protein accumulation in the developing seed coat and the embryo, whereas 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was the dominant oxylipin occurring nearly exclusively in the seed coat tissues. The OPDA- and JA-deficient mutant spr2 was delayed in embryo development and showed an increased programmed cell death in the developing seed coat and endosperm. In contrast, the mutant acx1a, which accumulates preferentially OPDA and residual amount of JA, developed embryos similar to the wild type, suggesting a role of OPDA in embryo development. Activity of the residual amount of JA in the acx1a mutant is highly improbable since the known reproductive phenotype of the JA-insensitive mutant jai1 could be rescued by wound-induced formation of OPDA. These data suggest a role of OPDA or an OPDA-related compound for proper embryo development possibly by regulating carbohydrate supply and detoxification. KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1435 TI - Another JA/COI1-independent role of OPDA detected in tomato embryo development. JO - Plant Signal Behav PY - 2012 SP - 1349-1353 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Goetz, S. AU - Hellwege, A. AU - Forner, S. AU - Strnad, M. AU - Hause, B. VL - 7 UR - http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/kpsb20 DO - 10.4161/psb.21551 AB - Jasmonates (JAs) are ubiquitously occurring signaling compounds in plants formed in response to biotic and abiotic stress as well as in development. (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl isoleucine, the bioactive JA, is involved in most JA-dependent processes mediated by the F-box protein COI1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. However, there is an increasing number of examples, where the precursor of JA biosynthesis, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) is active in a JA/COI1-independent manner. Here, we discuss those OPDA-dependent processes, thereby giving emphasis on tomato embryo development. Recent data on seed coat-generated OPDA and its role in embryo development is discussed based on biochemical and genetic evidences. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1541 TI - An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly-sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues. JO - Plant Methods PY - 2012 SP - AU - Balcke, G.U. AU - Handrick, V. AU - Bergau, N. AU - Fichtner, M. AU - Henning, A. AU - Stellmach, H. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Frolov, A. VL - 8:47 UR - http://plantmethods.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4811-8-47 DO - 0.1186/1746-4811-8-47 AB - BackgroundPhytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing.ResultsHere we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified.ConclusionThe method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1432 TI - Polyamine homeostasis in wild type and phenolamide deficient Arabidopsis thaliana stamens. JO - Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00180 PY - 2012 SP - 180 AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Handrick, V. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 3 UR - AB - Polyamines (PAs) like putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are ubiquitous polycationic molecules that occur in all living cells and have a role in a wide variety of biological processes. High amounts of spermidine conjugated to hydroxycinnamic acids are detected in the tryphine of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains. Tapetum localized spermidine hydroxycinnamic acid transferase (SHT) is essential for the biosynthesis of these anther specific tris-conjugated spermidine derivatives. Sht knockout lines show a strong reduction of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs). The effect of HCAA-deficient anthers on the level of free PAs was measured by a new sensitive and reproducible method using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) and fluorescence detection by HPLC. PA concentrations can be accurately determined even when very limited amounts of plant material, as in the case of A. thaliana stamens, are available. Analysis of free PAs in wild type stamens compared to sht deficient mutants and transcript levels of key PA biosynthetic genes revealed a highly controlled regulation of PA homeostasis in A. thaliana anthers. A2 - C1 - Molecular Signal Processing; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1437 TI - ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) gene family members of Arabidopsis thaliana: tissue- and organ-specific promoter activities and in vivo heteromerization* JO - J Exp Bot. PY - 2012 SP - 6125-6138 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Otto, M. AU - Delker, C. AU - Kirmse, N. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Hause, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 63 UR - AB - Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for AOC1 and AOC4 in flower development. In situ hybridization of flower stalks confirmed the GUS activity data. Characterization of single and double AOC loss-of-function mutants further corroborates the hypothesis of functional redundancies among individual AOCs due to a lack of phenotypes indicative of JA deficiency (e.g. male sterility). To elucidate whether redundant AOC expression might contribute to regulation on AOC activity level, protein interaction studies using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were performed and showed that all AOCs can interact among each other. The data suggest a putative regulatory mechanism of temporal and spatial fine-tuning in JA formation by differential expression and via possible heteromerization of the four AOCs. KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1371 TI - Water-soluble chlorophyll protein (WSCP) of Arabidopsis is expressed in the gynoecium and developing silique. JO - Planta PY - 2012 SP - 251-259 AU - Bektas, I. AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - Paulsen, H. VL - 236 UR - http://www.springerlink.com/content/0jh4k24w11g85413/ AB - Water-soluble chlorophyll protein (WSCP) has been found in many Brassicaceae, most often in leaves. In many cases, its expression is stress-induced, therefore, it is thought to be involved in some stress response. In this work, recombinant WSCP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtWSCP) is found to form chlorophyll-protein complexes in vitro that share many properties with recombinant or native WSCP from Brassica oleracea, BoWSCP, including an unusual heat resistance up to 100°C in aqueous solution. A polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant apoprotein is used to identify plant tissues expressing AtWSCP. The only plant organs containing significant amounts of AtWSCP are the gynoecium in open flowers and the septum of developing siliques, specifically the transmission tract. In fully grown but still green siliques, the protein has almost disappeared. Possible implications for AtWSCP functions are discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1370 TI - The role of CCoAOMT and COMT in Arabidopsis anthers. JO - Planta PY - 2012 SP - 51-61 AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - van Ohlen, M. AU - Handrick, V. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 236 UR - AB - Arabidopsis caffeoyl coenzyme A dependent O-methyltransferase 1 (CCoAOMT1) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase 1 (COMT1) display a similar substrate profile although with distinct substrate preferences and are considered the key methyltransferases (OMTs) in the biosynthesis of lignin monomers, coniferyl and sinapoylalcohol. Whereas CCoAOMT1 displays a strong preference for caffeoyl coenzyme A, COMT1 preferentially methylates 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA derivatives and also performs methylation of flavonols with vicinal aromatic dihydroxy groups, such as quercetin. Based on different knockout lines, phenolic profiling, and immunohistochemistry, we present evidence that both enzymes fulfil distinct, yet different tasks in Arabidopsis anthers. CCoAOMT1 besides its role in vascular tissues can be localized to the tapetum of young stamens, contributing to the biosynthesis of spermidine phenylpropanoid conjugates. COMT1, although present in the same organ, is not localized in the tapetum, but in two directly adjacent cells layers, the endothecium and the epidermal layer of stamens. In vivo localization and phenolic profiling of comt1 plants provide evidence that COMT1 neither contributes to the accumulation of spermidine phenylpropanoid conjugates nor to the flavonol glycoside pattern of pollen grains. KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1369 TI - Repeated leaf wounding alters the colonization of Medicago truncatula roots by beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. JO - Plant Cell & Environment PY - 2012 SP - 1344-1357 AU - Landgraf, R. AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Hause, B. VL - 35 (7) UR - AB - In nature, plants are subject to various stresses that are often accompanied by wounding of the aboveground tissues. As wounding affects plants locally and systemically, we investigated the impact of leaf wounding on interactions of Medicago truncatula with root-colonizing microorganisms, such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices, the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. To obtain a long-lasting wound response, repeated wounding was performed and resulted in locally and systemically increased jasmonic acid (JA) levels accompanied by the expression of jasmonate-induced genes, among them the genes encoding allene oxide cyclase 1 (MtAOC1) and a putative cell wall-bound invertase (cwINV). After repeated wounding, colonization with the AM fungus was increased, suggesting a role of jasmonates as positive regulators of mycorrhization, whereas the interaction with the rhizobacterium was not affected. In contrast, wounded plants appeared to be less susceptible to pathogens which might be caused by JA-induced defence mechanisms. The effects of wounding on mycorrhization and pathogen infection could be partially mimicked by foliar application of JA. In addition to JA itself, the positive effect on mycorrhization might be mediated by systemically induced cwINV, which was previously shown to exhibit a regulatory function on interaction with AM fungi. KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1415 TI - Prenyl- und Methyltransferasen in Natur und Synthese. JO - Biospektrum PY - 2012 SP - 22-25 AU - Wessjohann, L. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Kufka, J. AU - Klein, R. VL - 18 (1) UR - AB - Late stage enzymatic prenylation and methylation are means to diversify (natural) compounds and to specify their functions. In eukaryotes and microbes, these steps are performed by large enzyme families, the prenyl and methyl transferases, which modify various types of small molecules, like isoprenoids, phenolics or alkaloids, but also DNA and proteins. We investigate the theoretical basis of these processes and possible commercial applications in synthetic chemistry. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 1544 TI - Trichome specific expression: promoters and their applications. T2 - Trichome specific expression: promoters and their applications. PB - In Transgenic Plants: Advances and Limitations, Yelda Ozden Çiftçi (Ed.) PY - 2012 SP - 353-378 AU - Tissier, A. VL - UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1392 TI - CML42-mediated calcium signaling co-ordinates responses to Spodoptera herbivory and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2012 SP - 1159-1175 AU - Vadassery, J. AU - Reichelt, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Gershenzon, J. AU - Boland, W. AU - Mithöfer, A. VL - 159 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1543 TI - Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene Z-abienol in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) glandular trichomes. JO - Plant J PY - 2012 SP - 1-17 AU - Sallaud, C. AU - Giacalone, C. AU - Töpfer, R. AU - Goepfert, S. AU - Bakaher, N. AU - Rösti, S. AU - Tissier, A. VL - 72 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1476 TI - Fast track assembly of multigene constructs using Golden Gate cloning and the MoClo system. JO - Bioeng Bugs PY - 2012 SP - AU - Werner, S. AU - Engler, C. AU - Weber, E. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 3 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1457 TI - Deciphering systemic wound responses of the pumpkin extrafascicular phloem by metabolomics and stable isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL). JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2012 SP - 2285-2299 AU - Gaupels, F. AU - Sarioglu, H. AU - Beckmann, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Spannagl, M. AU - Draper, J. AU - Lindermayr, C. AU - Durner, J. VL - 160 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1545 TI - Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative. JO - Proc Natl Acad Sci USA PY - 2012 SP - 20124-20129 AU - Bleeker, P.M. AU - Mirabella, R. AU - Diergaarde, P.J. AU - Vandoorn, A. AU - Tissier, A. AU - Kant, M.R. AU - Prins, M. AU - de Vos, M. AU - Haring, M.A. AU - Schuurink, R.C. VL - 109 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1542 TI - Glandular trichomes: what comes after expressed sequence tags? JO - Plant J PY - 2012 SP - 51-68 AU - Tissier, A. VL - 70 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1218 TI - Arabidopsis methyltransferase fingerprints by affinity-based protein profiling JO - Anal Biochem PY - 2011 SP - 220-225 AU - Wirsing, L. AU - Naumann, K. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 408 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00032697 DO - 10.1016/j.ab.2010.09.029 AB - Precise annotation of time and spatial distribution of enzymes involved in plant secondary metabolism by gel electrophoresis are usually difficult due to their low abundance. Therefore, effective methods to enrich these enzymes are required to correlate available transcript and metabolite data with the actual presence of active enzymes in wild-type and mutant plants or to monitor variations of these enzymes under various types of biotic and abiotic stress conditions. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases play important roles in the modification of natural products such as phenylpropanoids or alkaloids. In plants they occur as small superfamilies with defined roles for each of its members in different organs and tissues. We explored the use of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine as a selectivity function in affinity-based protein profiling supported by capture compound mass spectrometry. Due to their high affinity to this ligand it was possible to identify developmental changes of flower-specific patterns of plant natural product O-methyltransferases and corroborate the absence of individual O-methyltransferases in the corresponding Arabidopsis knockout lines. Developmental changes in the OMT pattern were correlated with transcript data obtained by qPCR. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1247 TI - Overexpression of Sinapine Esterase BnSCE3 in Oilseed Rape Seeds Triggers Global Changes n Seed Metabolism JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2011 SP - 1127-1145 AU - Clauß, K. AU - von Roepenack-Lahaye, E. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Roth, M.R. AU - Welti, R. AU - Erban, A. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Milkowski, K. AU - Strack, D. VL - 155 UR - http://intl.plantphysiol.org/content/155/3/1127.full.pdf+html?sid=9d6f8f41-971e-41f3-a1ad-37320170b4c1 DO - 10.1104/pp.110.169821 AB - Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1230 TI - Jasmonate biosynthesis in legume and actinorhizal nodules JO - New Phytol PY - 2011 SP - 568-579 AU - Zdyb, A. AU - Demchenko, K. AU - Heumann, J. AU - Mrosk, C. AU - Grzeganek, P. AU - Göbel, C. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Pawlowski, K. AU - Hause, B. VL - 189 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1480 TI - Quick and clean cloning: a ligation-independent cloning strategy for selective cloning of specific PCR products from non-specific mixes JO - PLOS One PY - 2011 SP - e20556 AU - Thieme, F. AU - Engler, C. AU - Kandzia, R. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 6 UR - http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020556 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1477 TI - Assembly of designer TAL effectors by Golden Gate cloning JO - PLOS One PY - 2011 SP - e19722 AU - Weber, E. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Werner, S. AU - Engler, C. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 6 UR - http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0019722 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1356 TI - A versatile monosaccharide transporter that operates in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp is crucial for the symbiotic relationship with plants. JO - Plant Cell PY - 2011 SP - 3812-3823 AU - Helber, N. AU - Wippel, K. AU - Sauer, N. AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Requena, N. VL - 23 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1345 TI - A special pair of phytohormones controls excitability, slow closure, and external stomach formation in the Venus flytrap JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PY - 2011 SP - 15492-15497 AU - Escalante-Pérez, M. AU - Krol, E. AU - Stange, A. AU - Geiger, D. AU - Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Neher, E. AU - Hedrich, R. VL - 108 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1264 TI - Cell-specific visualization of jasmonates in wounded tomato and Arabidopsis leaves using jasmonate-specific antibodies JO - New Phytol PY - 2011 SP - 1069-1080 AU - Mielke, K. AU - Forner, S. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Conrad, U. AU - Hause, B. VL - 190 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1248 TI - Carotenoids and their cleavage products: Biosynthesis and function. JO - Nat Prod Rep PY - 2011 SP - 663-692 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Strack, D. VL - 28 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1478 TI - A modular cloning system for standardized assembly of multigene constructs JO - PLOS One PY - 2011 SP - e16765 AU - Weber, E. AU - Engler, C. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Werner, S. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 6 UR - http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0016765 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1479 TI - Generation of families of construct variants using Golden Gate shuffling JO - Methods Mol Biol PY - 2011 SP - 167-181 AU - Engler, C. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 729 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1229 TI - Profiling of phenylpropanoids in transgenic low-sinapine oilseed rape (Brassica napus) JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2010 SP - 1076-1084 AU - Wolfram, K. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 71 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942210001317 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.04.007 AB - A dsRNAi approach silencing a key enzyme of sinapate ester biosynthesis (UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase, encoded by the UGT84A9 gene) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds was performed to reduce the anti-nutritive properties of the seeds by lowering the content of the major seed component sinapine (sinapoylcholine) and various minor sinapate esters. The transgenic seeds have been produced so far to the T6 generation and revealed a steady suppression of sinapate ester accumulation. HPLC analysis of the wild-type and transgenic seeds revealed, as in the previous generations, marked alterations of the sinapate ester pattern of the transformed seeds. Besides strong reduction of the amount of the known sinapate esters, HPLC analysis revealed unexpectedly the appearance of several minor hitherto unknown rapeseed constituents. These compounds were isolated and identified by mass spectrometric and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Structures of 11 components were elucidated to be 4-O-glucosides of syringate, caffeyl alcohol and its 7,8-dihydro derivative as well as of sinapate and sinapine, along with sinapoylated kaempferol glycosides, a hexoside of a cyclic spermidine alkaloid and a sinapine derivative with an ether-bridge to a C6–C3-unit. These results indicate a strong impact of the transgenic approach on the metabolic network of phenylpropanoids in B. napus seeds. Silencing of UGT84A9 gene expression disrupt the metabolic flow through sinapoylglucose and alters the amounts and nature of the phenylpropanoid endproducts. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1206 TI - The moss Physcomitrella patens contains cyclopentenones but no jasmonates: mutations in allene oxide cyclase lead to reduced fertility and altered sporophyte morphology JO - New Phytologist PY - 2010 SP - 740-749 AU - Stumpe, M. AU - Göbel, C. AU - Faltin, B. AU - Beike, A.K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Himmelsbach, K. AU - Bode, J. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Frank, W. AU - Reski, R. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 188 (3) UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03406.x/abstract DO - doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03406.x AB - Two cDNAs encoding allene oxide cyclases (PpAOC1, PpAOC2), key enzymes in the formation of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor (9S,13S)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA), were isolated from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Recombinant PpAOC1 and PpAOC2 show substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 13-hydroperoxy inolenic acid (13-HPOTE); PpAOC2 also shows substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 12-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid (12-HPETE). In protonema and gametophores the occurrence of cis-(+)-OPDA, but neither JA nor the isoleucine conjugate of JA nor that of cis-(+)-OPDA was detected. Targeted knockout mutants for PpAOC1 and for PpAOC2 were generated, while double mutants could not be obtained. The DPpAOC1 and DPpAOC2 mutants showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1214 TI - The isogene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 controls isoprenoid profiles, precursor pathway allocation and density of tomato trichomes. JO - Mol Plant PY - 2010 SP - 904-916 AU - Paetzold, H. AU - Garms, S. AU - Bartram, S. AU - Wieczorek, J. AU - Urós-Gracia, E.M. AU - Rodríguez-Concepción, M. AU - Boland, W. AU - Strack, D. AU - Hause, B. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 3 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1173 TI - Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during leaf and flower development in Petunia hybrida JO - BMC Plant Biol PY - 2010 SP - 10:04 AU - Mallona, I. AU - Lischewski, S. AU - Weiss, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Egea-Cortines, M. VL - UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1174 TI - Temporary dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formation and enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light JO - J. Plant Physiol PY - 2010 SP - 547-554 AU - Klopotek, Y. AU - Haensch, K.-T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hajirezaei, M.-R. AU - Druege, U. VL - 167 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1228 TI - Sinapate esters in brassicaceous plants: biochemistry, molecular biology, evolution and metabolic engineering JO - Planta PY - 2010 SP - 19-35 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 232 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1185 TI - SlCCD7 controls strigolactone biosynthesis, shoot branching and mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoid formation in tomato. JO - Plant J PY - 2010 SP - 300-311 AU - Vogel, J.T. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Giavalisco, P. AU - Lytovchenko, A. AU - Kohlen, W. AU - Charnikhova, T. AU - Simkin, A.J. AU - Goulet, C. AU - Strack, D. AU - Bouwmeester, H.J. AU - Fernie, A.R. AU - Klee, H.J. VL - 61 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1233 TI - Profiling of hydroxycinnamic acid amides in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen by tandem mass spectrometry JO - Anal. Bioanal. Chem PY - 2010 SP - 2789-2801 AU - Handrick, V. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Frolov, A. VL - 398 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1226 TI - Phosphate systemically inhibits development of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida and represses genes involved in mycorrhizal functioning JO - Plant J PY - 2010 SP - 1002-1017 AU - Breuillin, F. AU - Hajirezaei, M.-R. AU - Ahkami, A. AU - Favre, P. AU - Druege, U. AU - Hause, B. AU - Bucher, M. AU - Kretzschmar, T. AU - Bossolini, E. AU - Kuhlemeier, C. AU - Martinoia, E. AU - Franken, P. AU - Scholz, U. AU - Reinhardt, D. VL - 64 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1171 TI - Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis JO - Mol. Plant PY - 2010 SP - 2-20 AU - Vogt, T. VL - 3 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1186 TI - Apocarotenoids: hormones, mycorrhizal metabolites and aroma volatiles. JO - Planta PY - 2010 SP - 1-17 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Floss, D.S. AU - Strack, D. VL - 232 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1170 TI - Carboxymethylation of the fibrillar collagen with respect to formation of hydroxyapatite JO - J. Biom. Mat. Res PY - 2010 SP - 542-551 AU - Ehrlich, H. AU - Hanke, T. AU - Simon, P. AU - Born, R. AU - Fischer, C. AU - Frolov, A. AU - Langrock, T. AU - Hoffmann, R. AU - Schwarzenbolz, U. AU - Henle, T. AU - Bazhenov, V.V. AU - Worch, H. VL - 92B UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1231 TI - Fragmentation behavior of Amadori-peptides obtained by non-enzymatic glycosylation of lysine residues with ADP-ribose in tandem mass spectrometry JO - J. Mass. Spectrom PY - 2010 SP - 664-669 AU - Fedorova, M. AU - Frolov, A. AU - Hoffmann, R. VL - 45 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1120 TI - Does mycorrhization influence herbivore-induced volatile emission in Medicago truncatula? JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2010 SP - 89-101 AU - Leitner, M. AU - Kaiser, R. AU - Hause, B. AU - Boland, W. AU - Mithöfer, A. VL - 20 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1232 TI - Identification and relative quantification of specific glycation sites in human serum albumin JO - Anal. Bioanal. Chem PY - 2010 SP - 2349-2356 AU - Frolov, A. AU - Hoffmann, R. VL - 397 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1227 TI - Genomic microstructure and differential expression of the genes encoding UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase (UGT84A9) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) JO - Theor Appl Genet PY - 2010 SP - 14851500 AU - Mittasch, J. AU - Mikolajewski, S. AU - Breuer, F. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 120 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1225 TI - Identification and localization of a lipase-like acyltransferase in phenylpropanoid metabolism of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) JO - J. Biol. Chem PY - 2010 SP - 38374-38381 AU - Teutschbein, J. AU - Gross, W. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 285 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1168 TI - Increasing sucrose uptake capacity of wheat grains stimulates storage protein synthesis JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2010 SP - 698-710 AU - Weichert, N. AU - Saalbach, I. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Kohl, S. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Varshney, A. AU - Sreenivasulu, N. AU - Strickert, M. AU - Kumlehn, J. AU - Weschke, W. AU - Weber, H. VL - 152 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1087 TI - Spodoptera Littoralis Induced Lectin Expression in Tobacco JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2009 SP - 1142-1155 AU - Vandenborre, G. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Hause, B. AU - Smagghe, G. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. VL - 50 UR - 10.1093/pcp/pcp065 DO - 10.1093/pcp/pcp065 AB - The induced defense response in plants towards herbivores is mainly regulated by jasmonates and leads to the accumulation of so-called jasmonate-induced proteins. Recently, a jasmonate (JA) inducible lectin called Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin or NICTABA was discovered in tobacco( N. tabacum cv Samsun) leaves. Tobacco plants also accumulate the lectin after insect attack by caterpillars. To study the functional role of NICTABA, the accumulation of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA as well as different JA metabolites were analyzed in tobacco leaves after herbivory by larvae of the cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis ) and correlated with NICTABA accumulation. It was shown that OPDA, JA as well as its methyl ester can trigger NICTABA accumulation. However, hydroxylation of JA and its subsequent sulfation and glucosylation results in inactive compounds that have lost the capacity to induce NICTABA gene expression. The expression profi le of NICTABA after caterpillar feeding was recorded in local as well as in systemic leaves, and compared to the expression of several genes encodingdefense proteins, and genes encoding a tobacco systemin and the allene oxide cyclase, an enzyme in JA biosynthesis. Furthermore, the accumulation of NICTABA was quantified after S. littoralis herbivory and immunofl uorescence microscopy was used to study the localization of NICTABA in the tobacco leaf. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1166 TI - Sinapoyltransferases in the light of molecular evolution. JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2009 SP - 1652-1662 AU - Stehle, F. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Stubbs, M.T. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 70 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942209002970 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.023 AB - Acylation is a prevalent chemical modification that to a significant extent accounts for the tremendous diversity of plant metabolites. To catalyze acyl transfer reactions, higher plants have evolved acyltransferases that accept β-acetal esters, typically 1-O-glucose esters, as an alternative to the ubiquitously occurring CoA-thioester-dependent enzymes. Shared homology indicates that the β-acetal ester-dependent acyltransferases are derived from a common hydrolytic ancestor of the Serine CarboxyPeptidase (SCP) type, giving rise to the name Serine CarboxyPeptidase-Like (SCPL) acyltransferases. We have analyzed structure–function relationships, reaction mechanism and sequence evolution of Arabidopsis 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose:l-malate sinapoyltransferase (AtSMT) and related enzymes to investigate molecular changes required to impart acyltransferase activity to hydrolytic enzymes. AtSMT has maintained the catalytic triad of the hydrolytic ancestor as well as part of the H-bond network for substrate recognition to bind the acyl acceptor l-malate. A Glu/Asp substitution at the amino acid position preceding the catalytic Ser supports binding of the acyl donor 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose and was found highly conserved among SCPL acyltransferases. The AtSMT-catalyzed acyl transfer reaction follows a random sequential bi-bi mechanism that requires both substrates 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose and l-malate bound in an enzyme donor–acceptor complex to initiate acyl transfer. Together with the strong fixation of the acyl acceptor l-malate, the acquisition of this reaction mechanism favours transacylation over hydrolysis in AtSMT catalysis. The model structure and enzymatic side activities reveal that the AtSMT-mediated acyl transfer proceeds via a short-lived acyl enzyme complex. With regard to evolution, the SCPL acyltransferase clade most likely represents a recent development. The encoding genes are organized in a tandem-arranged cluster with partly overlapping functions. With other enzymes encoded by the respective gene cluster on Arabidopsis chromosome 2, AtSMT shares the enzymatic side activity to disproportionate 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucoses to produce 1,2-di-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose. In the absence of the acyl acceptor l-malate, a residual esterase activity became obvious as a remnant of the hydrolytic ancestor. With regard to the evolution of Arabidopsis SCPL acyltransferases, our results suggest early neofunctionalization of the hydrolytic ancestor toward acyltransferase activity and acyl donor specificity for 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose followed by subfunctionalization to recognize different acyl acceptors. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1126 TI - Phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana flower buds JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2009 SP - 1392-1400 AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 70 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942209003628 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.08.010 AB - Phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugates have been identified in flowers of many plant species. Their presence in Arabidopsis thaliana has only been recently established in flower buds and pollen grains. Annotation and location of a cation-dependent O-methyltransferase AtTSM1 specifically to the tapetum of young flower buds enabled the subsequent identification of several genes with a putative role in phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugate biosynthesis. Based on the analysis of several A. thaliana knockout mutants, a biosynthetic pathway of these conjugates is proposed, which involves two methylation steps catalyzed by different cation-dependent O-methyltransferases, a cytochrome P450 (CYP98A8) catalyzed hydroxylation, and a conjugating acyl transfer performed by a BAHD-like, hydroxycinnamoyl (HC)-transferase. LC/MS based metabolite profiling of the cyp98A8 knockout line identified new feruloyl- and 4-coumaroylspermidine conjugates in the corresponding flowers consistent with a role of this gene in the hydroxylation of these conjugates. A pattern of minor amounts of bis- and tris-acylspermidine conjugates, likely the products of additional HC-transferases were identified in wild type as well as in the mutant lines. Transcript suppression of the genes early in the pathway was observed in knockout or RNAi-lines of the genes encoding late enzymatic steps. The implication of these findings for spermidine conjugate biosynthesis in flower buds of A. thaliana is discussed. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1165 TI - Jasmonates in stress responses and development JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2009 SP - 1483-1484 AU - Hause, B. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 70 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.004 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1172 TI - Evolution of metabolic diversity JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2009 SP - 1619-1620 AU - Brakhage, A. AU - Gierl, A. AU - Hartmann, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 70 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.007 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1094 TI - Emerging complexity: jasmonate-induced volatiles affect parasitoid choice JO - J Exp Bot PY - 2009 SP - 2451-2453 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 60 UR - http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year DO - 10.1093/jxb/erp197 AB - Plant responses to specific environmental stimuli at the molecular and genetic levels have been widely reported in recent decades, mainly as a consequence of the availability of new laboratory techniques. However, understanding the complex implications of these observations at the ecosystem level remains one of the greatest challenges facing plant science today. Recently, new experimental strategies have been designed to address complex interactions. For example, combinations of different insects have been used to study insect–plant interactions (Dicke et al., 2009) as well as parallel analysis of the responses to different types of pathogen which reflect more closely the conditions encountered in natural ecosystems (Pieterse et al., 2009).In this issue, the two papers by Bruinsma and colleagues also address such complex issues; the detailed analysis of plant responses to different herbivores and JA application are documented, and the responses of parasitic wasps that attack the herbivores are recorded. The authors’ experimental design and interpretation of the results highlight the importance of understanding the complexity of plant responses in the context of a whole ecosystem.In the last two decades, interest in plant–insect interactions using ecological, chemical, and molecular approaches has increased dramatically. Direct defence reactions of plants, such as the production of toxins or deterrent proteins like proteinase inhibitors, as well as indirect defence reactions, have been identified showing that the effectiveness of the natural enemies of attackers can be altered. In the latter case, the induced release of volatiles is a common phenomenon leading to the attraction of carnivores. Plants attacked by herbivores respond with the establishment of a chemical phenotype, releasing volatiles into the atmosphere that include terpenoids, phenylpropanoids or fatty acid-derived green leaf volatiles. The detailed composition of the volatile blend is insect-specific and depends on the type of attacker (e.g. chewing or sucking … A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1162 TI - Modification of collagen in vitro with respect to formation of Nε-carboxymethyllysine JO - Int. J. Biol. Macromol PY - 2009 SP - 51-56 AU - Ehrlich, H. AU - Hanke, T. AU - Frolov, A. AU - Langrock, T. AU - Hoffmann, R. AU - Fischer, C. AU - Schwarzenbolz, U. AU - Henle, T. AU - Born, R. AU - Worch, H. VL - 44 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1161 TI - Mineralization of biomimetically carboxymethylated collagen fibrils in a model dual membrane diffusion system JO - J. Membrane Sci PY - 2009 SP - 254-259 AU - Ehrlich, H. AU - Hanke, T. AU - Born, R. AU - Fischer, C. AU - Frolov, A. AU - Langrock, T. AU - Hoffmann, R. AU - Schwarzenbolz, U. AU - Henle, T. AU - Simon, P. AU - Geiger, D. AU - Bazhenov, V.V. AU - Worch, H. VL - 326 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1045 TI - Molecular physiology of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings: involvement of wound response and primary metabolism JO - New Phytol PY - 2009 SP - 613-625 AU - Ahkami, A.H. AU - Lischewski, S. AU - Haensch, K.T. AU - Porfirova, S. AU - Hofmann, J. AU - Rolletschek, H. AU - Melzer, M. AU - Franken, P. AU - Hause, B. AU - Druege, U. AU - Hajirezaei, M.R. VL - 181 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1118 TI - Wege zur Endomykorrhiza. Einladung ans Buffet JO - Biologie in unserer Zeit PY - 2009 SP - 102-113 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 39 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1121 TI - The role of jasmonates in mutualistic symbioses between plants and soil-born microorganisms JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2009 SP - 1589-1599 AU - Hause, B. AU - Schaarschmidt, S. VL - 70 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1044 TI - The signal peptide of the Medicago truncatulamodular nodulin MtNOD25 operates as an address label for the specific targeting of proteins to nitrogen-fixing symbiosomes JO - Mol. Plant Microbe In PY - 2009 SP - 63-72 AU - Hohnjec, N. AU - Lenz, F. AU - Fehlberg, V. AU - Vieweg, M.F. AU - Baier, M.C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Küster, H. VL - 22 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1164 TI - Solid phase synthesis and analysis of Amadori peptides JO - Adv. Exp. Med. Biol PY - 2009 SP - 423-424 AU - Frolov, A. AU - Singer, D. AU - Zauner, T. AU - Hoffmann, R. VL - 611 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1112 TI - Role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) in apocarotenoid biogenesis revisited JO - Plant Sign. Behav PY - 2009 SP - 172-175 AU - Floss, D.S. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 4 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1048 TI - Overlapping expression patterns and differential transcript levels of phosphate transporter genes in arbuscular mycorrhizal, Pi-fertilised and phytohormone-treated Medicago truncatula roots JO - Planta PY - 2009 SP - 1023-1034 AU - Grunwald, U. AU - Guo, W. AU - Fischer, S. AU - Isayenkov, S. AU - Ludwig-Müller, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Yan, X. AU - Küster, H. AU - Franken, P. VL - 229 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1119 TI - Composite Medicago truncatula plants harbouring Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots reveal normal mycorrhization by Glomus intraradices JO - J. Exp. Bot PY - 2009 SP - 3797-3807 AU - Mrosk, C. AU - Forner, S. AU - Hause, G. AU - Küster, H. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Hause, B. VL - 60 UR - AB - KW - Cell Biology A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1169 TI - Chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species play a major role in localised cell death during the nonhost interaction between tobacco and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria JO - Plant J PY - 2009 SP - 962-973 AU - Zurbriggen, M. AU - Carrillo, N. AU - Tognetti, V. AU - Melzer, M. AU - Peisker, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hajirezaei, M.R. VL - 60 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1167 TI - Die facettenreiche Welt der Apocarotinoide JO - Biologie in unserer Zeit PY - 2009 SP - 336-344 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Floss, D.S. AU - Strack, D. VL - 39 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1481 TI - Golden gate shuffling: a one-pot DNA shuffling method based on type IIs restriction enzymes JO - PLOS One PY - 2009 SP - e5553 AU - Engler, C. AU - Gruetzner, R. AU - Kandzia, R. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 4 UR - http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005553 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1069 TI - Accumulation of apocarotenoids in mycorrhizal roots of leek (Allium porrum) JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2008 SP - 1680-1688 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Kolbe, B. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M AU - Wray, V. VL - 69 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942208001088 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.02.015 AB - Colonization of the roots of leek (Allium porrum L.) by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices induced the formation of apocarotenoids, whose accumulation has been studied over a period of 25 weeks. Whereas the increase in the levels of the dominating cyclohexenone derivatives resembles the enhancement of root length colonization, the content of mycorradicin derivatives remains relatively low throughout. Structural analysis of the cyclohexenone derivatives by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy showed that they are mono- and diglycosides of 13-hydroxyblumenol C and blumenol C acylated with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaric and/or malonic acid. Along with the isolation of three known compounds five others are shown to be hitherto unknown members of the fast-growing family of mycorrhiza-induced cyclohexenone conjugates. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 985 TI - Metabolite profiling of mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2008 SP - 112-146 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Ammer, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 69 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942207004372 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.06.032 AB - Metabolite profiling of soluble primary and secondary metabolites, as well as cell wall-bound phenolic compounds from roots of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) was carried out by GC–MS, HPLC and LC–MS. These analyses revealed a number of metabolic characteristics over 56 days of symbiotic interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices, when compared to the controls, i.e. nonmycorrhizal roots supplied with low and high amounts of phosphate. During the most active stages of overall root mycorrhization, elevated levels of certain amino acids (Glu, Asp, Asn) were observed accompanied by increases in amounts of some fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids), indicating a mycorrhiza-specific activation of plastidial metabolism. In addition, some accumulating fungus-specific fatty acids (palmitvaccenic and vaccenic acids) were assigned that may be used as markers of fungal root colonization. Stimulation of the biosynthesis of some constitutive isoflavonoids (daidzein, ononin and malonylononin) occurred, however, only at late stages of root mycorrhization. Increase of the levels of saponins correlated AM-independently with plant growth. Only in AM roots was the accumulation of apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives) observed. The structures of the unknown cyclohexenone derivatives were identified by spectroscopic methods as glucosides of blumenol C and 13-hydroxyblumenol C and their corresponding malonyl conjugates. During mycorrhization, the levels of typical cell wall-bound phenolics (e.g. 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, ferulic acid) did not change; however, high amounts of cell wall-bound tyrosol were exclusively detected in AM roots.Principal component analyses of nonpolar primary and secondary metabolites clearly separated AM roots from those of the controls, which was confirmed by an hierarchical cluster analysis. Circular networks of primary nonpolar metabolites showed stronger and more frequent correlations between metabolites in the mycorrhizal roots. The same trend, but to a lesser extent, was observed in nonmycorrhizal roots supplied with high amounts of phosphate. These results indicate a tighter control of primary metabolism in AM roots compared to control plants. Network correlation analyses revealed distinct clusters of amino acids and sugars/aliphatic acids with strong metabolic correlations among one another in all plants analyzed; however, mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the cluster separation and enlarged the sugar cluster size. The amino acid clusters represent groups of metabolites with strong correlations among one another (cliques) that are differently composed in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, the present work shows for the first time that there are clear differences in development- and symbiosis-dependent primary and secondary metabolism of M. truncatula roots. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1057 TI - RNA interference-mediated repression of MtCCD1 in mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula causes accumulation of C27 apocarotenoids, shedding light on the functional role of CCD1 1[W][OA] JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2008 SP - 1267-1282 AU - Floss, D.S. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 148 UR - http://intl.plantphysiol.org/content/148/3/1267.full.pdf+html DO - ​org/​10.​1104/​pp.​108.​125062 AB - Tailoring carotenoids by plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) generates various bioactive apocarotenoids. Recombinant CCD1 has been shown to catalyze symmetrical cleavage of C40 carotenoid substrates at 9,10 and 9′,10′ positions. The actual substrate(s) of the enzyme in planta, however, is still unknown. In this study, we have carried out RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated repression of a Medicago truncatula CCD1 gene in hairy roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. As a consequence, the normal AM-mediated accumulation of apocarotenoids (C13 cyclohexenone and C14 mycorradicin derivatives) was differentially modified. Mycorradicin derivatives were strongly reduced to 3% to 6% of the controls, while the cyclohexenone derivatives were only reduced to 30% to 47%. Concomitantly, a yellow-orange color appeared in RNAi roots. Based on ultraviolet light spectra and mass spectrometry analyses, the new compounds are C27 apocarotenoic acid derivatives. These metabolic alterations did not lead to major changes in molecular markers of the AM symbiosis, although a moderate shift to more degenerating arbuscules was observed in RNAi roots. The unexpected outcome of the RNAi approach suggests C27 apocarotenoids as the major substrates of CCD1 in mycorrhizal root cells. Moreover, literature data implicate C27 apocarotenoid cleavage as the general functional role of CCD1 in planta. A revised scheme of plant carotenoid cleavage in two consecutive steps is proposed, in which CCD1 catalyzes only the second step in the cytosol (C27 → C14 + C13), while the first step (C40 → C27 + C13) may be catalyzed by CCD7 and/or CCD4 inside plastids. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1036 TI - The role of UDP-glucose:hydroxycinnamate glucosyltransferases in phenylpropanoid metabolism and the response to UV-B radiation in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Planta PY - 2008 SP - 663-674 AU - Meißner, D. AU - Albert, A. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 228 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00425-008-0768-3 DO - 10.1007/s00425-008-0768-3 AB - Arabidopsis harbors four UDP-glycosyltransferases that convert hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) to 1-O-β-glucose esters, UGT84A1 (encoded by At4g15480), UGT84A2 (At3g21560), UGT84A3 (At4g15490), and UGT84A4 (At4g15500). To elucidate the role of the individual UGT84A enzymes in planta we analyzed gene expression, UGT activities and accumulation of phenylpropanoids in Arabidopsis wild type plants, ugt mutants and overexpressing lines. Individual ugt84A null alleles did not significantly reduce the gross metabolic flux to the accumulating compounds sinapoylcholine (sinapine) in seeds and sinapoylmalate in leaves. For the ugt84A2 mutant, LC/MS analysis revealed minor qualitative and quantitative changes of several HCA choline esters and of disinapoylspermidine in seeds. Overexpression of individual UGT84A genes caused increased enzyme activities but failed to produce significant changes in the pattern of accumulating HCA esters. For UGT84A3, our data tentatively suggest an impact on cell wall-associated 4-coumarate. Exposure of plants to enhanced UV-B radiation induced the UGT84A-encoding genes and led to a transient increase in sinapoylglucose and sinapoylmalate concentrations. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 987 TI - The genes BnSCT1and BnSCT2from Brassica napus encoding the final enzyme of sinapine biosynthesis: molecular characterization and suppression JO - Planta PY - 2008 SP - 375-385 AU - Weier, D. AU - Mittasch, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 227 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00425-007-0624-x DO - 10.1007/s00425-007-0624-x AB - This study describes the molecular characterization of the genes BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) encoding the enzyme 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT; EC 2.3.1.91). SCT catalyzes the 1-O-β-acetal ester-dependent biosynthesis of sinapoylcholine (sinapine), the most abundant phenolic compound in seeds of B. napus. GUS fusion experiments indicated that seed specificity of BnSCT1 expression is caused by an inducible promoter confining transcription to embryo tissues and the aleurone layer. A dsRNAi construct designed to silence seed-specifically the BnSCT1 gene was effective in reducing the sinapine content of Arabidopsis seeds thus defining SCT genes as targets for molecular breeding of low sinapine cultivars of B. napus. Sequence analyses revealed that in the allotetraploid genome of B. napus the gene BnSCT1 represents the C genome homologue from the B. oleracea progenitor whereas BnSCT2 was derived from the Brassica A genome of B. rapa. The BnSCT1 and BnSCT2 loci showed colinearity with the homologous Arabidopsis SNG2 gene locus although the genomic microstructure revealed the deletion of a cluster of three genes and several coding regions in the B. napus genome. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1049 TI - Tapetum specific location of a cation-dependent O-methyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Plant J PY - 2008 SP - 132-145 AU - Fellenberg, C. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Lange, P. AU - Böttcher, C. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 56 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03576.x/full DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03576.x AB - Cation- and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent plant natural product methyltransferases are referred to as CCoAOMTs because of their preferred substrate, caffeoyl coenzyme A (CCoA). The enzymes are encoded by a small family of genes, some of which with a proven role in lignin monomer biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana individual members of this gene family are temporally and spatially regulated. The gene At1g67990 is specifically expressed in flower buds, and is not detected in any other organ, such as roots, leaves or stems. Several lines of evidence indicate that the At1g67990 transcript is located in the flower buds, whereas the corresponding CCoAOMT-like protein, termed AtTSM1, is located exclusively in the tapetum of developing stamen. Flowers of At1g67990 RNAi-suppressed plants are characterized by a distinct flower chemotype with severely reduced levels of the N ′,N ′′-bis-(5-hydroxyferuloyl)-N ′′′-sinapoylspermidine compensated for by N1,N5,N10-tris-(5-hydroxyferuloyl)spermidine derivative, which is characterized by the lack of a single methyl group in the sinapoyl moiety. This severe change is consistent with the observed product profile of AtTSM1 for aromatic phenylpropanoids. Heterologous expression of the recombinant protein shows the highest activity towards a series of caffeic acid esters, but 5-hydroxyferuloyl spermidine conjugates are also accepted substrates. The in vitro substrate specificity and the in vivo RNAi-mediated suppression data of the corresponding gene suggest a role of this cation-dependent CCoAOMT-like protein in the stamen/pollen development of A. thaliana. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1028 TI - Knock-down of the MEP pathway isogene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 inhibits formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoids and abolishes normal expression of mycorrhiza-specific plant marker genes JO - Plant J PY - 2008 SP - 86-100 AU - Floß, D.S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Lange, P.R. AU - Küster, H. AU - Strack, D. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 56 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03575.x AB - The first step of the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is catalyzed by two isoforms of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS1 and DXS2). In Medicago truncatula, MtDXS1 and MtDXS2 genes exhibit completely different expression patterns. Most prominently, colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi induces the accumulation of certain apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives) correlated with the expression of MtDXS2 but not of MtDXS1. To prove a distinct function of DXS2, a selective RNAi approach on MtDXS2 expression was performed in transgenic hairy roots of M. truncatula. Repression of MtDXS2 consistently led to reduced transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots, and to a concomitant reduction of AM-induced apocarotenoid accumulation. The transcript levels of MtDXS1 remained unaltered in RNAi plants, and no phenotypical changes in non-AM plants were observed. Late stages of the AM symbiosis were adversely affected, but only upon strong repression with residual MtDXS2-1 transcript levels remaining below approximately 10%. This condition resulted in a strong decrease in the transcript levels of MtPT4, an AM-specific plant phosphate transporter gene, and in a multitude of other AM-induced plant marker genes, as shown by transcriptome analysis. This was accompanied by an increased proportion of degenerating and dead arbuscules at the expense of mature ones. The data reveal a requirement for DXS2-dependent MEP pathway-based isoprenoid products to sustain mycorrhizal functionality at later stages of the symbiosis. They further validate the concept of a distinct role for DXS2 in secondary metabolism, and offer a novel tool to selectively manipulate the levels of secondary isoprenoids by targeting their precursor supply. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1021 TI - Functional and structural characterization of a cation-dependent O-methyltransferase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain pcc 6803 JO - J. Biol. Chem PY - 2008 SP - 20888-20896 AU - Kopycki, J.G. AU - Stubbs, M.T. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Hagemann, M. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Zenk, M.H. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 283 UR - http://www.jbc.org/search?author1=Jakub+Grzegorz+Kopycki&sortspec=date&submit=Submit DO - 10.1074/jbc.M801943200 AB - The coding sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 slr0095 gene was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The corresponding enzyme was classified as a cation- and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase (SynOMT), consistent with considerable amino acid sequence identities to eukaryotic O-methyltransferases (OMTs). The substrate specificity of SynOMT was similar with those of plant and mammalian CCoAOMT-like proteins accepting a variety of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids as substrates. In contrast to the known mammalian and plant enzymes, which exclusively methylate the meta-hydroxyl position of aromatic di- and trihydroxy systems, Syn-OMT also methylates the para-position of hydroxycinnamic acids like 5-hydroxyferulic and 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid, resulting in the formation of novel compounds. The x-ray structure of SynOMT indicates that the active site allows for two alternative orientations of the hydroxylated substrates in comparison to the active sites of animal and plant enzymes, consistent with the observed preferred para-methylation and position promiscuity. Lys3 close to the N terminus of the recombinant protein appears to play a key role in the activity of the enzyme. The possible implications of these results with respect to modifications of precursors of polymers like lignin are discussed. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 994 TI - Mechanostimulation of Medicago truncatula leads to enhanced levels of jasmonic acid JO - J. Exp. Bot PY - 2008 SP - 2847-2856 AU - Tretner, C. AU - Huth, U. AU - Hause, B. VL - 59 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 938 TI - Lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Norway spruce plants harboring an antisense construct for cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) JO - Transgenic Res PY - 2008 SP - 379-392 AU - Wadenbäck, J. AU - Von Arnold, S. AU - Egersdotter, U. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Grima-Pettenati, J. AU - Goffner, D. AU - Gellerstedt, G. AU - Gullion, T. AU - Clapham, D. VL - 17 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 993 TI - The AOC promoter of tomato is regulated by developmental and environmental stimuli JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2008 SP - 1859-1869 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Proels, R. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Oka, M. AU - Roitsch, T. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 69 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 992 TI - The type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 is essential for root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Plant Cell PY - 2008 SP - 124-141 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Ischebeck, T. AU - König, S. AU - Hotubowska, A. AU - Sporysz, M. AU - Rasche, N. AU - Hause, B. AU - Heilmann, I. VL - 20 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 982 TI - Role of a GDSL lipase-like protein as sinapine esterase in Brassicaceae JO - Plant J PY - 2008 SP - 802-813 AU - Clauß, K. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 53 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1019 TI - Biochemical and structural analysis of substrate promiscuity in plant Mg2+-dependent O-methyltransferases JO - J. Mol. Biol PY - 2008 SP - 154-164 AU - Kopycki, J.G. AU - Rauh, D. AU - Chumanevich, A.A. AU - Neumann, P. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Stubbs, M.T. VL - 378 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 991 TI - Apoplastic invertases: multi-faced players in the arbuscular mycorrhization JO - Plant Signaling & Behavior PY - 2008 SP - 317-319 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Hause, B. VL - 3 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1029 TI - Cloning and characterisation of a maize carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (ZmCCD1) and its involvement in the biosynthesis of apocarotenoids with various roles in mutualistic and parasitic interactions JO - Planta PY - 2008 SP - 789-801 AU - Sun, Z. AU - Hans, J. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Matusova, R. AU - Beekwilder, J. AU - Verstappen, F.W.A. AU - Ming, Z. AU - van Echtelt, E. AU - Strack, D. AU - Bisseling, T. AU - Bouwmeester, H.J. VL - 228 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1020 TI - Color inheritance in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits JO - Ann. Appl. Biol PY - 2008 SP - 307-318 AU - Felker, P. AU - Stinzing, F. AU - Müssig, E. AU - Leitenberger, M. AU - Carle, R. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Bunch, R. VL - 152 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1127 TI - Dissection of a complex seed phenotype: novel insights of FUSCA3 regulated developmental processes JO - Dev. Biol PY - 2008 SP - 1-12 AU - Tiedemann, J. AU - Rutten, T. AU - Mönke, G. AU - Vorwieger, A. AU - Rolletschek, H. AU - Meißner, D. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Petereck, S. AU - Mock, H.P. AU - Zank, T. AU - Bäumlein, H. VL - 317 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 1482 TI - A one pot, one step, precision cloning method with high throughput capability JO - PLOS One PY - 2008 SP - e3647 AU - Engler, C. AU - Kandzia, R. AU - Marillonnet, S. VL - 3 UR - http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003647 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 988 TI - Heterologous expression of a serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase and characterization of the kinetic mechanism JO - FEBS J PY - 2008 SP - 775-787 AU - Stehle, F. AU - Stubbs, M.T. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 275 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 949 TI - “Chromoplast” development in arbuscular mycorrhizal root. JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 92-100 AU - Fester, T. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Halfmann, K. VL - 68 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.09.034 AB - The accumulation of apocarotenoids in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots suggests a dramatic reorganization of the plastids responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds. This review describes the cytological and biochemical characterization of this phenomenon. The results presented suggest that plastids are key organelles for the establishment of the symbiotic interface of the AM symbiosis. In addition, a complex interplay of various plant cell components during the different functional phases of this interface is suggested. Arbuscule degradation appears to be of particular interest, as it correlates with the formation of the most extensive plastid structures and with apocarotenoid accumulation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 934 TI - An evaluation of text retrieval methods for similarity search of multi-dimensional NMR-Spectra T2 - Bioinformatics Research and Development. PB - Lecture Notes in Computer Science PY - 2007 SP - 424-438 AU - Hinneburg, A. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Wolfram, K. VL - 4414 UR - http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-540-71233-6_33 SN - 978-3-540-71232-9 DO - 10.1007/978-3-540-71233-6_33 AB - Searching and mining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-spectra of naturally occurring substances is an important task to investigate new potentially useful chemical compounds. Multi-dimensional NMR-spectra are relational objects like documents, but consists of continuous multi-dimensional points called peaks instead of words. We develop several mappings from continuous NMR-spectra to discrete text-like data. With the help of those mappings any text retrieval method can be applied. We evaluate the performance of two retrieval methods, namely the standard vector space model and probabilistic latent semantic indexing (PLSI). PLSI learns hidden topics in the data, which is in case of 2D-NMR data interesting in its owns rights. Additionally, we develop and evaluate a simple direct similarity function, which can detect duplicates of NMR-spectra. Our experiments show that the vector space model as well as PLSI, which are both designed for text data created by humans, can effectively handle the mapped NMR-data originating from natural products. Additionally, PLSI is able to find meaningful ”topics” in the NMR-data. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 933 TI - Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis re-veals the benzylisoquinoline binding site of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase salu-taridine reductase JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2007 SP - 1493-1503 AU - Geissler, R. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Ziegler, J. VL - 143 UR - http://intl.plantphysiol.org/content/143/4/1493.full.pdf+html?sid=d83c7f8a-bb0d-40f6-852e-8015f946789b DO - ​10.​1104/​pp.​106.​095166 AB - Recently, the NADPH-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) salutaridine reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.248) implicated in morphine biosynthesis was cloned from Papaver somniferum. In this report, a homology model of the Papaver bracteatum homolog was created based on the x-ray structure of human carbonyl reductase 1. The model shows the typical α/β-folding pattern of SDRs, including the four additional helices αF′-1 to αF′-4 assumed to prevent the dimerization of the monomeric short-chain dehyrogenases/reductases. Site-directed mutagenesis of asparagine-152, serine-180, tyrosine-236, and lysine-240 resulted in enzyme variants with strongly reduced performance or inactive enzymes, showing the involvement of these residues in the proton transfer system for the reduction of salutaridine. The strong preference for NADPH over NADH could be abolished by replacement of arginine residues 44 and 48 by glutamic acid, confirming the interaction between the arginines and the 2′-phosphate group. Docking of salutaridine into the active site revealed nine amino acids presumably responsible for the high substrate specificity of salutaridine reductase. Some of these residues are arranged in the right position by an additional αE′ helix, which is not present in SDRs analyzed so far. Enzyme kinetic data from mutagenic replacement emphasize the critical role of these residues in salutaridine binding and provide the first data on the molecular interaction of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with enzymes. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 853 TI - Secondary product glycosyltransferases in seeds of Brassica napus JO - Planta PY - 2007 SP - 515-522 AU - Mittasch, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 225 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00425-006-0360-7 DO - 10.1007/s00425-006-0360-7 AB - This study describes a systematic screen for secondary product UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs; EC 2.4.1) involved in seed development of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and was aimed at identifying genes related to UGT84A9 encoding UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.120), a proven target for molecular breeding approaches to reduce the content of anti-nutritive sinapate esters. By RT-PCR with primers recognizing the conserved signature motif of UGTs, 13 distinct ESTs could be generated from seed RNA. Sequence analysis allowed to assign the isolated ESTs to groups B, D, E, and L of the UGT family. In an alternative approach, two open reading frames related to UGT84A9 were cloned from the B. napus genome and designated as UGT84A10 and UGT84A11, respectively. Functional expression of UGT84A10 revealed that the encoded enzyme catalyzes the formation of 1-O-acylglucosides (β-acetal esters) with several hydroxycinnamates whereas, in our hands, the recombinant UGT84A11 did not display this enzymatic activity. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the majority of potential UGTs specified by the isolated ESTs is differentially expressed. A pronounced transcriptional up-regulation during seed development was evident for UGT84A9 and one EST (BnGT3) clustering in group E of UGTs. UGT84A10 was highly induced in flowers and expressed to a moderate level in late seed maturation indicating a possible involvement in seed-specific sinapate ester biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 964 TI - Corrigendum to “Structure determinants and substrate recognition of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases from plant secondary metabolism” [FEBS Lett. 580 (2006) 6366–6374] JO - FEBS Letters PY - 2007 SP - 164-165 AU - Stehle, F. AU - Brand, W. AU - Mikowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 581 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.12.001/full DO - 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.12.001 AB - A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 879 TI - Jasmonate signaling in tomato the input of tissue-specific occurrence of allene oxide cyclase and JA metabolites JO - PY - 2007 SP - AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Goetz, S. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Miersch, O. VL - 107-111 UR - SN - 978-1-4276-1965-5 AB - A2 - Benning C., Ollrogge, J. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 881 TI - Immunomodulation of jasmonate to manipulate the wound response JO - J. Exp. Botany PY - 2007 SP - 2525-2535 AU - ten Hoopen, P. AU - Hunger, A. AU - Müller, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Rosahl, S. AU - Conrad, U. VL - 58 UR - http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year DO - 10.1093/jxb/erm122 AB - Jasmonates are signals in plant stress responses and development. The exact mode of their action is still controversial. To modulate jasmonate levels intracellularly as well as compartment-specifically, transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing single-chain antibodies selected against the naturally occurring (3R,7R)-enantiomer of jasmonic acid (JA) were created in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum. Consequently, the expression of anti-JA antibodies in planta caused JA-deficient phenotypes such as insensitivity of germinating transgenic seedlings towards methyl jasmonate and the loss of wound-induced gene expression. Results presented here suggest an essential role for cytosolic JA in the wound response of tobacco plants. The findings support the view that substrate availability takes part in regulating JA biosynthesis upon wounding. Moreover, high JA levels observed in immunomodulated plants in response to wounding suggest that tobacco plants are able to perceive a reduced level of physiologically active JA and attempt to compensate for this by increased JA accumulation. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 940 TI - Functional identification and differential expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and other MEP pathway genes in induced terpenoid resin formation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) JO - Plant Mol. Biol PY - 2007 SP - 243-257 AU - Phillips, M.A. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Ralph, S. AU - Dabrowska, P. AU - Luck, K. AU - Urós, E.V. AU - Boland, W. AU - Strack, D. AU - Rodríguez-Concepción , M. AU - Bohlmann, J. AU - Gershenzon, J. VL - 65 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/11103 DO - 10.1007/s11103-007-9212-5 AB - Conifers produce terpenoid-based oleoresins as constitutive and inducible defenses against herbivores and pathogens. Much information is available about the genes and enzymes of the late steps of oleoresin terpenoid biosynthesis in conifers, but almost nothing is known about the early steps which proceed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we report the cDNA cloning and functional identification of three Norway spruce (Picea abies) genes encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), which catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, and their differential expression in the stems of young saplings. Among them are representatives of both types of plant DXS genes. A single type I DXS gene is constitutively expressed in bark tissue and not affected by wounding or fungal application. In contrast, two distinct type II DXS genes, PaDXS2A and PaDXS2B, showed increased transcript abundance after these treatments as did two other genes of the MEP pathway tested, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 4-hydroxyl 3-methylbutenyl diphosphate reductase (HDR). We also measured gene expression in a Norway spruce cell suspension culture system that, like intact trees, accumulates monoterpenes after treatment with methyl jasmonate. These cell cultures were characterized by an up-regulation of monoterpene synthase gene transcripts and enzyme activity after elicitor treatment, as well as induced formation of octadecanoids, including jasmonic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid. Among the Type II DXS genes in cell cultures, PaDXS2A was induced by treatment with chitosan, methyl salicylate, and Ceratocystis polonica (a bark beetle-associated, blue-staining fungal pathogen of Norway spruce). However, PaDXS2B was induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate and chitosan, but was not affected by methyl salicylate or C. polonica. Our results suggest distinct functions of the three DXS genes in primary and defensive terpenoid metabolism in Norway spruce. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 896 TI - MAM3 catalyzes the formation of all aliphatic glucosinolate chain lengths in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2007 SP - 60-71 AU - Textor, S. AU - De Kraker, J.-W. AU - Hause, B. AU - Gershenzon, J. AU - Tokuhisa, J.G. VL - 144 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 850 TI - Jasmonates in arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 101-110 AU - Hause, B. AU - Mrosk, C. AU - Isayenkov, S. AU - Strack, D. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 989 TI - Regulation of arbuscular mycorrhization by carbon. The symbiotic interaction cannot be im-proved by increased carbon availability accomplished by root-specifically enhanced invertase activity JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2007 SP - 1827-1840 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - González, M.-C. AU - Roitsch, T. AU - Strack, D. AU - Sonnewald, U. AU - Hause, B. VL - 143 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 897 TI - Regulation of arbuscular mycorrhization by apoplastic invertases: enhanced invertase activity in the leaf apoplast affects the symbiotic interaction JO - Plant J PY - 2007 SP - 390-405 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Ludwig-Müller, J. AU - Hause, B. VL - 51 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 893 TI - Role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in resistance of pearl millet against downy mildew pathogen Sclerospora graminicola JO - Planta PY - 2007 SP - 323-333 AU - Deepak, S. AU - Shailasree, S. AU - Kini, R.K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Shetty, S.H. AU - Mithöfer, A. VL - 226 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 876 TI - Regulation of arbuscular mycorrhization by carbon. The symbiotic interaction cannot be improved by increased carbon availability accomplished by root-specifically enhanced invertase activity JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2007 SP - 1827-1840 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - González, M.-C. AU - Roitsch, T. AU - Strack, D. AU - Sonnewald, U. AU - Hause, B. VL - 143 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 852 TI - REVIEW: Apocarotenoid biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots: Contributions from methylerythritol phosphate pathway isogenes and tools for its manipulation JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 130-138 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Floß, D.S. AU - Hans, J. AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 950 TI - Pigments of Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) JO - Zeitschrift für Naturforschung PY - 2007 SP - 779-785 AU - Stintzing, F. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - UR - AB - The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyaninlike compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 895 TI - Cell- and tissue-specific localization and regulation of the epithiospecifier protein in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Plant Mol. Biol PY - 2007 SP - 173-185 AU - Burow, M. AU - Rice, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Gershenzon, J. AU - Wittstock, U. VL - 64 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 851 TI - Chromoplast development in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 92-100 AU - Fester, T. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Halfmann, K. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 932 TI - Cytochemical immuno-localization of allene oxide cy-clase, a jasmonic acid biosynthetic enzyme, in developing potato stolons JO - J. Plant Physiol PY - 2007 SP - 1449-1456 AU - Cenzano, A. AU - Abdala, G. AU - Hause, B. VL - 164 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 927 TI - Filamentous temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) isoforms specifically interact in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol of Physcomitrella patens JO - New Phytol PY - 2007 SP - 299310 AU - Gremillon, L. AU - Kiessling, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Decker, E.L. AU - Reski, R. AU - Sarnighausen, E. VL - 176 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 936 TI - Editorial. Molecular basics of mycorrhizal symbioses JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 67 AU - Pühler, A. AU - Strack, D. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 935 TI - Editorial. Professor Thomas Hartmann 70th birthday on 2 February 2007 JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2007 SP - 265 AU - Ober, D. AU - Strack, D. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 925 TI - Drought and symbiosis - Why is abscisic acid necessary for arbuscular mycorrhiza? JO - New Phytol PY - 2007 SP - 383-386 AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. VL - 175 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 939 TI - Genetic variation for sinapate ester content in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and development of NIRS calibration equations JO - Plant Breeding PY - 2007 SP - 291-296 AU - Zum Felde, T. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Strack, D. AU - Becker, H.C. AU - Möllers, C. VL - 126 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 779 TI - Accumulation of apocarotenoids in mycorrhizal roots of Ornithogalum umbellatum JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2006 SP - 1196-1205 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 67 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942206002378 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.05.005 AB - Colonization of roots of Ornithogalum umbellatum by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices induced the accumulation of different types of apocarotenoids. In addition to the mycorrhiza-specific occurrence of cyclohexenone derivatives and the “yellow pigment” described earlier, free mycorradicin and numerous mycorradicin derivatives were detected in a complex apocarotenoid mixture for the first time. From the accumulation pattern of the mycorradicin derivatives their possible integration into the continuously accumulating “yellow pigment” is suggested. Structure analyses of the cyclohexenone derivatives by MS and NMR revealed that they are mono-, di- and branched triglycosides of blumenol C, 13-hydroxyblumenol C, and 13-nor-5-carboxy-blumenol C, some of which contain terminal rhamnose as sugar moiety. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 835 TI - Cloning and functional characterisation of two regioselective flavonoid glucosyltransferases from Beta vulgaris JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2006 SP - 1598-1612 AU - Isayenkova, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Strack, D. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 67 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942206003591 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.06.026 AB - Two full-length cDNAs encoding flavonoid-specific glucosyltransferases, UGT73A4 and UGT71F1, were isolated from a cDNA library of Beta vulgaris (Amaranthaceae) cell suspension cultures. They displayed high identity to position-specific betanidin and flavonoid glucosyltransferases from Dorotheanthus bellidiformis (Aizoaceae) and to enzymes with similar substrate specificities from various plant families. The open reading frame of the sequences encode proteins of 476 (UGT73A4) and 492 (UGT71F1) amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 54.07 kDa and 54.39 kDa, and isoelectric points of 5.8 and 5.6, respectively. Both enzymes were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli as His- and GST-tagged proteins, respectively. They exhibited a broad substrate specificity, but a distinct regioselectivity, glucosylating a variety of flavonols, flavones, flavanones, and coumarins. UGT73A4 showed a preference for the 4′- and 7-OH position in the flavonoids, whereas UGT71F1 preferentially glucosylated the 3- or the 7-OH position. Glucosylation of betanidin, the aglycone of the major betacyanin, betanin, in B. vulgaris was also observed to a low extent by both enzymes. Several O-glycosylated vitexin derivatives isolated from leaves of young B. vulgaris plants and rutin obtained from B. vulgaris tissue culture are discussed as potential endogenous products of UGT73A4 and UGT71F1. The results are analyzed with regard to evolution and specificity of plant natural product glucosyltransferases. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 702 TI - Flavonols and an indole alkaloid skeleton bearing identical acylated glycosidic groups from yellow petals of Papaver nudicaule JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2006 SP - 191-201 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schneider, B. AU - Wray, V. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Böhm, H. VL - 67 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942205005959 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.11.002 AB - From yellow petals of Iceland poppy, besides the known flavonoid gossypitrin, seven kaempferol derivatives were isolated. In addition to kaempferol 3-O-β-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-β-sophoroside-7-O-β-glucoside, known from other plants, the mono- and dimalonyl conjugates of the latter were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. Structure analyses of a set of co-occurring pigments, the nudicaulins, revealed that they have the identical acylated glycoside moieties attached to a pentacyclic indole alkaloid skeleton for which the structure of 19-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10H-1,10-ethenochromeno[2,3-b]indole-6,8,18-triol was deduced from MS and NMR as well as chemical and chiroptical methods. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - CHAP ID - 894 TI - Similarity search for multi-dimensional NMR spectra of natural products T2 - Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2006 PB - Lecture Notes in Computer Science PY - 2006 SP - 650-658 AU - Wolfram, K. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Hinneburg, A. VL - 4213 UR - http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/11871637_67 SN - 978-3-540-45374-1 978-3-540-46048-0 DO - 10.1007/11871637_67 AB - Searching and mining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-spectra of naturally occurring products is an important task to investigate new potentially useful chemical compounds. We develop a set-based similarity function, which, however, does not sufficiently capture more abstract aspects of similarity. NMR-spectra are like documents, but consists of continuous multi-dimensional points instead of words. Probabilistic semantic indexing (PLSI) is an retrieval method, which learns hidden topics. We develop several mappings from continuous NMR-spectra to discrete text-like data. The new mappings include redundancies into the discrete data, which proofs helpful for the PLSI-model used afterwards. Our experiments show that PLSI, which is designed for text data created by humans, can effectively handle the mapped NMR-data originating from natural products. Additionally, PLSI combined with the new mappings is able to find meaningful ”topics” in the NMR-data. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 794 TI - Comparative transcript and alkaloid profiling in Papaver species identifies a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase involved in morphine biosynthesis JO - Plant J. PY - 2006 SP - 177-192 AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Voigtländer, S. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Ammer, C. AU - Gesell, A. AU - Kutchan, T.M. VL - 48 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02860.x/full DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02860.x AB - Plants of the order Ranunculales, especially members of the species Papaver, accumulate a large variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with about 2500 structures, but only the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Papaver setigerum are able to produce the analgesic and narcotic morphine and the antitussive codeine. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for this exceptional biosynthetic capability by comparison of alkaloid profiles with gene expression profiles between 16 different Papaver species. Out of 2000 expressed sequence tags obtained from P. somniferum, 69 show increased expression in morphinan alkaloid-containing species. One of these cDNAs, exhibiting an expression pattern very similar to previously isolated cDNAs coding for enzymes in benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis, showed the highest amino acid identity to reductases in menthol biosynthesis. After overexpression, the protein encoded by this cDNA reduced the keto group of salutaridine yielding salutaridinol, an intermediate in morphine biosynthesis. The stereoisomer 7-epi-salutaridinol was not formed. Based on its similarities to a previously purified protein from P. somniferum with respect to the high substrate specificity, molecular mass and kinetic data, the recombinant protein was identified as salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248). Unlike codeinone reductase, an enzyme acting later in the pathway that catalyses the reduction of a keto group and which belongs to the family of the aldo-keto reductases, the cDNA identified in this study as SalR belongs to the family of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and is related to reductases in monoterpene metabolism. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 781 TI - Jasmonate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Enzymes, products, regulation JO - Plant Biol. PY - 2006 SP - 297-306 AU - Delker, C. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 8 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1055/s-2006-923935/abstract DO - 10.1055/s-2006-923935 AB - Among the plant hormones jasmonic acid and related derivatives are known to mediate stress responses and several developmental processes. Biosynthesis, regulation, and metabolism of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana are reviewed, including properties of mutants of jasmonate biosynthesis. The individual signalling properties of several jasmonates are described. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 839 TI - Structure determinants and substrate recognition of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases from plant secondary metabolism JO - FEBS Lett PY - 2006 SP - 6366-6374 AU - Stehle, F. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 580 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.10.046/full DO - 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.10.046 AB - Structures of the serine carboxypeptidase-like enzymes 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose:l-malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT) and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) were modeled to gain insight into determinants of specificity and substrate recognition. The structures reveal the α/β-hydrolase fold as scaffold for the catalytic triad Ser-His-Asp. The recombinant mutants of SMT Ser173Ala and His411Ala were inactive, whereas Asp358Ala displayed residual activity of 20%. 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose recognition is mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds. The glucose moiety is recognized by a hydrogen bond network including Trp71, Asn73, Glu87 and Asp172. The conserved Asp172 at the sequence position preceding the catalytic serine meets sterical requirements for the glucose moiety. The mutant Asn73Ala with a residual activity of 13% underscores the importance of the intact hydrogen bond network. Arg322 is of key importance by hydrogen bonding of 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose and l-malate. By conformational change, Arg322 transfers l-malate to a position favoring its activation by His411. Accordingly, the mutant Arg322Glu showed 1% residual activity. Glu215 and Arg219 establish hydrogen bonds with the sinapoyl moiety. The backbone amide hydrogens of Gly75 and Tyr174 were shown to form the oxyanion hole, stabilizing the transition state. SCT reveals also the catalytic triad and a hydrogen bond network for 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose recognition, but Glu274, Glu447, Thr445 and Cys281 are crucial for positioning of choline. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 842 TI - Immunocytochemistry T2 - The Medicago truncatula handbook PB - PY - 2006 SP - AU - Hause, B. AU - Frugier, F. AU - Crespi, M. VL - UR - http://www.noble.org/MedicagoHandbook/ SN - 0-9754303-1-9 AB - A2 - Mathesius, U., Journet, E.P., Sumner, L.W.; eds C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 700 TI - Transgenic barley plants overexpressing a 13-lipoxygenase to modify oxylipin signature JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2006 SP - 264-276 AU - Sharma, V.K. AU - Monostori, T. AU - Göbel, C. AU - Hänsch, R. AU - Bittner, F. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Mendel, R.R. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schulze, J. VL - 67 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 833 TI - The conserved AM-specific transcription of the secretory lectin MtLec5 is mediated by a short upstream sequence containing specific protein binding sites JO - Planta PY - 2006 SP - 792-800 AU - Frenzel, A. AU - Tiller, N. AU - Hause, B. AU - Krajinski, F. VL - 224 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 701 TI - The wound response in tomato - Role of jasmonic acid JO - J. Plant Physiol PY - 2006 SP - 297-306 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hause, G. AU - Kutter, C. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Neumerkel, J. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Miersch, O. VL - 163 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 840 TI - Sanguinarine reductase, a key enzyme of benzophenanthridine detoxification JO - Plant Cell Environ PY - 2006 SP - 291-302 AU - Weiss, D. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Vogel, M. AU - Roos, W. VL - 29 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 838 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhiza induces gene expression of the apoplastic invertase LIN6 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots JO - J. Exp. Bot PY - 2006 SP - 4015-4023 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Roitsch, T. AU - Hause, B. VL - 57 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 805 TI - FtsZ characterization and immunolocalization in the two phases of plastid reorganization in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2006 SP - 1124-1134 AU - Lohse, S. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hause, G. AU - Fester, T. VL - 47 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 806 TI - Isoprenoid metabolism and plastid reorganization in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - New Phytol PY - 2006 SP - 22-34 AU - Strack, D. AU - Fester, T. VL - 172 UR - AB - Tansley review A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 834 TI - Immunolocalisation of two tropinone reductases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in root, stolon, and tuber sprouts JO - Planta PY - 2006 SP - 127-137 AU - Kaiser, H. AU - Richter, U. AU - Keiner, R. AU - Brabant, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Dräger, B. VL - 225 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 543 TI - Is stimulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots a general phenomenon? JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2005 SP - 1781-1786 AU - Fester, T. AU - Wray, V. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 66 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942205002268 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.05.009 AB - The identification and quantification of cyclohexenone glycoside derivatives from the model legume Lotus japonicus revealed far higher levels than expected according to the stoichiometric relation to another, already determined carotenoid cleavage product, i.e., mycorradicin. Mycorradicin is responsible for the yellow coloration of many arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and is usually esterified in a complex way to other compounds. After liberation from such complexes it has been detected in AM roots of many, but not of all plants examined. The non-stoichiometric occurrence of this compound compared with other carotenoid cleavage products suggested that carotenoid biosynthesis might be activated upon mycorrhization even in plant species without detectable levels of mycorradicin. This assumption has been supported by inhibition of a key enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis (phytoene desaturase) and quantification of the accumulating enzymic substrate (phytoene). Our observations suggest that the activation of carotenoid biosynthesis in AM roots is a general phenomenon and that quantification of mycorradicin is not always a good indicator for this activation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 721 TI - Formation of a complex pattern of sinapate esters in Brassica napus seeds, catalyzed by enzymes of a serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase family? JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2005 SP - 1334-1345 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 66 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942205001834 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.02.031 AB - Members of the Brassicaceae accumulate complex patterns of sinapate esters, as shown in this communication with seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Fifteen seed constituents were isolated and identified by a combination of high-field NMR spectroscopy and high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. These include glucose, gentiobiose and kaempferol glycoside esters as well as sinapine (sinapoylcholine), sinapoylmalate and an unusual cyclic spermidine amide. One of the glucose esters (1,6-di-O-sinapoylglucose), two gentiobiose esters (1-O-caffeoylgentiobiose and 1,2,6′-tri-O-sinapoylgentiobiose) and two kaempferol conjugates [4′-(6-O-sinapoylglucoside)-3,7-di-O-glucoside and 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-(2-O-sinapoylglucoside)] seem to be new plant products. Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) acyltransferases catalyze the formation of sinapine and sinapoylmalate accepting 1-O-β-acetal esters (1-O-β-glucose esters) as acyl donors. To address the question whether the formation of other components of the complex pattern of the sinapate esters in B. napus seeds is catalyzed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose, we performed a seed-specific dsRNAi-based suppression of the sinapate glucosyltransferase gene (BnSGT1) expression. In seeds of BnSGT1-suppressing plants the amount of sinapoylglucose decreased below the HPLC detection limit resulting in turn in the disappearance or marked decrease of all the other sinapate esters, indicating that formation of the complex pattern of these esters in B. napus seeds is dependent on sinapoylglucose. This gives rise to the assumption that enzymes of an SCPL acyltransferase family catalyze the appropriate transfer reactions to synthesize the accumulating esters. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 705 TI - Organization and metabolism of plastids and mitochondria in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2005 SP - 329-340 AU - Lohse, S. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Ammer, C. AU - Kopka, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Fester, T. VL - 139 UR - http://intl.plantphysiol.org/content/139/1/329.full.pdf+html DO - ​org/​10.​1104/​pp.​105.​061457 AB - Colonization of root cortical cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi leads to marked cytological changes of plastids and mitochondria. Plastids in particular are forming tubular extensions partially connecting individual organelles in a network-like way. These cytological changes correspond to an increased need for plastid and mitochondrial products during establishment and functioning of the symbiosis. The analysis of metabolite and transcript levels in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots from Medicago truncatula revealed concomitant changes regarding a number of metabolic pathways. Our results indicate the activation of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and of plastid biosynthetic pathways producing fatty acids, amino acids, and apocarotenoids. These observations provide a general overview of structural and metabolic changes of plastids and mitochondria during colonization of root cortical cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 711 TI - Comparative macroarray analysis of morphine containing Papaver somniferum and eight morphine free Papaverspecies identifies an O-methyltransferase involved in benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis JO - Planta PY - 2005 SP - 458-471 AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Diaz-Chávez, M.L. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Ammer, C. AU - Kutchan, T.M. VL - 222 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00425-005-1550-4 DO - 10.1007/s00425-005-1550-4 AB - Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids constitute a group of about 2,500 structures and are mainly produced by plants of the order Ranunculales. But only the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, and Papaver setigerum are able to produce morphine. In this study, we started to investigate by gene expression analysis the molecular basis for this exceptional biosynthetic ability. A sequencing project from P. somniferum seedlings was initiated using a method based on the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique that resulted in 849 UniGenes. These cDNAs were analysed on macroarrays for differential expression between morphine-containing P. somniferum plants and eight other Papaver species, which accumulate other benzylisoquinolines instead of morphine. Three cDNAs showing increased expression in P. somniferum compared to all the other Papaver species were identified. Whereas two showed no significant homology to any known protein, one putatively encoded an O-methyltransferase. Analysis of substrate specificity of the heterologously expressed protein and mass spectrometric identification of the enzymatic products identified this protein as S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(R,S)-3′-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4′-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.116). Unlike other O-methyltransferases of different positional specificities implicated in benzylisoquinoline metabolism, the enzyme only accepted tetrahydroxylated tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines as substrates; methylation was tolerated only at the 6-hydroxy position. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 699 TI - Genetic transformation of barley to modify expression of a 13-lipoxygenase JO - Acta Biol. Szeged PY - 2005 SP - 33-34 AU - Sharma, V.K. AU - Monostori, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Göbel, C. AU - Hornung, E. AU - Hänsch, R. AU - Bittner, F. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Mendel, R.R. AU - Schulze, J. VL - 49 UR - http://www2.sci.u-szeged.hu/ABS/2005/Acta%20HP/4933.pdf AB - Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 706 TI - Evolution of metabolic diversity JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2005 SP - 1198-1199 AU - Strack, D. AU - Hartmann, T. AU - Kutchan, T.M. VL - 66 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.021 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 504 TI - Lipid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2005 SP - 781-791 AU - Stumpe, M. AU - Carsjens, J.-G. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Göbel, C. AU - Lang, I. AU - Pawlowski, K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 66 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.01.020 AB - The peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, common to all eukaryotes, is mostly catalyzed by members of the lipoxygenase enzyme family of non-heme iron containing dioxygenases. Lipoxygenase products can be metabolized further in the oxylipin pathway by several groups of CYP74 enzymes. One prominent oxylipin is jasmonic acid (JA), a product of the 13-allene oxide synthase branch of the pathway and known as signaling substance that plays a role in vegetative and propagative plant development as well as in plant responses to wounding and pathogen attack. In barley roots, JA level increases upon colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from this first result regarding JA, no information is available on the relevance of lipidperoxide metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Thus we analyzed fatty acid and lipidperoxide patterns in roots of Medicago truncatula during mycorrhizal colonization. Levels of fungus-specific fatty acids as well as palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1 n − 9) were increased in mycorrhizal roots. Thus the degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of roots can be estimated via analysis of fungal specific esterified fatty acids. Otherwise, no significant changes were found in the profiles of esterified and free fatty acids. The 9- and 13-LOX products of linoleic and α-linolenic acid were present in all root samples, but did not show significant differences between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots, except JA which showed elevated levels in mycorrhizal roots. In both types of roots levels of 13-LOX products were higher than those of 9-LOX products. In addition, three cDNAs encoding CYP74 enzymes, two 9/13-hydroperoxide lyases and a 13-allene oxide synthase, were isolated and characterized. The transcript accumulation of these three genes, however, was not increased in mycorrhizal roots of M. truncatula. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 503 TI - Molecular and cell biology of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis JO - Planta PY - 2005 SP - 184-196 AU - Hause, B. AU - Fester, T. VL - 221 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 698 TI - Suppression of allene oxide cyclase in hairy roots of Medicago truncatula reduces jasmonate levels and the degree of mycorrhization with Glomus intraradices JO - Plant Physiol PY - 2005 SP - 1401-1410 AU - Isayenkov, S. AU - Mrosk, C. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Strack, D. AU - Hause, B. VL - 139 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 709 TI - Reduction of sinapate ester content in transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by dsRNAi-based suppression of BnSGT1 gene expression JO - Mol. Breeding PY - 2005 SP - 127-138 AU - Hüsken, A. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Strack, D. AU - Becker, H.C. AU - Möllers, C. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 16 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 708 TI - Resveratrol glucoside (piceid) synthesis in seeds of transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) JO - Theor. Appl. Genet. PY - 2005 SP - 1553-1562 AU - Hüsken, A. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Becker, H.C. AU - Strack, D. AU - Möllers, C. VL - 111 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 685 TI - Epothilone D affects cell cycle and microtubular pattern in plant cells JO - J. Exp. Bot PY - 2005 SP - 2131-2137 AU - Hause, G. AU - Lischewski, S. AU - Wessjohann, L.A. AU - Hause, B. VL - 56 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 502 TI - Accumulation of reactive oxygen species in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2005 SP - 373-379 AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, G. VL - 15 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 686 TI - N-(Jasmonoyl)tyrosine-Derived Compounds from Flowers of Broad Beans (Vicia faba) JO - J. Nat. Prod PY - 2005 SP - 1345-1349 AU - Kramell, R. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Herrmann, G. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 68 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 541 TI - Isolation and identification of arctiin and arctigenin in leaves of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) by polyamide column chromatography in combination with HPLC-ESI/MS JO - Phytochem. Anal PY - 2005 SP - 86-89 AU - Liu, S. AU - Chen, K. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 16 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 329 TI - Cloning, characterization, and immunolocalization of a mycorrhiza-inducible 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase in arbuscule-containing cells of maize JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2004 SP - 614-624 AU - Hans, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 134 UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/69/ DO - 10.1104/pp.103.032342 AB - Colonization of plant roots by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi frequently leads to the accumulation of several apocarotenoids. The corresponding carotenoid precursors originate from the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. We have cloned and characterized 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), catalyzing the first committed step of the pathway, from maize (Zea mays). Functional identification was accomplished by heterologous expression of sequences coding for the mature protein in Escherichia coli. DXR is up-regulated in maize roots during mycorrhization as shown at transcript and protein levels, but is also abundant in leaves and young seedlings. Inspection of sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases argue for a single-copy DXR gene. Immunolocalization studies in mycorrhizal roots using affinity-purified antibodies revealed a DXR localization in plastids around the main symbiotic structures, the arbuscules. DXR protein accumulation is tightly correlated with arbuscule development. The highest level of DXR protein is reached around maturity and initial senescence of these structures. We further demonstrate the formation of a DXR-containing plastidial network around arbuscules, which is highly interconnected in the mature, functional state of the arbuscules. Our findings imply a functional role of a still unknown nature for the apocarotenoids or their respective carotenoid precursors in the arbuscular life cycle. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 508 TI - Cations modulate the substrate specificity of bifunctional class I O-methyltransferase from Ammi majus JO - FEBS Lett PY - 2004 SP - 367-370 AU - Lukačin, R. AU - Matern, U. AU - Specker, S. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 577 UR - http://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1873-3468/issues/ DO - 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.10.032 AB - Caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase cDNA was cloned from dark-grown Ammi majus L. (Apiaceae) cells treated with a crude fungal elicitor and the open reading frame was expressed in Escherichia coli. The translated polypeptide of 27.1-kDa shared significant identity to other members of this highly conserved class of proteins and was 98.8% identical to the corresponding O-methyltransferase from parsley. For biochemical characterization, the recombinant enzyme could be purified to apparent homogeneity by metal-affinity chromatography, although the recombinant enzyme did not contain any affinity tag. Based on sequence analysis and substrate specificity, the enzyme classifies as a cation-dependent O-methyltransferase with pronounced preference for caffeoyl coenzyme A, when assayed in the presence of Mg2+-ions. Surprisingly, however, the substrate specificity changed dramatically, when Mg2+ was replaced by Mn2+ or Co2+ in the assays. This effect could point to yet unknown functions and substrate specificities in situ and suggests promiscuous roles for the lignin specific cluster of plant O-methyltransferases. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 368 TI - Applied jasmonates accumulate extracellularly in tomato, but intracellularly in barley JO - FEBS Lett. PY - 2004 SP - 45-50 AU - Bücking, H. AU - Förster, H. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Hause, B. VL - 562 UR - http://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1873-3468/issues/ DO - 10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00178-4 AB - Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense and development, but the site of their localization within plant tissue is entirely unknown. To address the question whether applied JA accumulates extracellularly or intracellularly, leaves of tomato and barley were fed with 14C-labeled JA and the label was localized in cryofixed and lyophilized leaf tissues by microautoradiography. In tomato the radioactivity was detectable within the apoplast, but no label was found within the mesophyll cells. By contrast, in barley leaf tissues, radioactivity was detected within the mesophyll cells suggesting a cellular uptake of exogenously applied JA. JA, applied to leaves of both plants as in the labeling experiments, led in all leaf cells to the expression of JA-inducible genes indicating that the perception is completed by JA signal transduction. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 314 TI - Site-directed mutagenesis and protein 3D-homology modelling suggest a catalytic mechanism for UDP-glucose dependent betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Dorotheanthus bellidiformis JO - Plant J. PY - 2004 SP - 319-333 AU - Hans, J. AU - Brandt, W. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 39 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02133.x/epdf DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02133.x AB - In livingstone daisy (Dorotheanthus bellidiformis), betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (UGT73A5) is involved in the regiospecific glucosylation of betanidin and various flavonols. Based on sequence alignments several amino acid candidates which might be essential for catalysis were identified. The selected amino acids of the functionally expressed protein, suggested to be involved in substrate binding and turnover, were substituted via site-directed mutagenesis. The substitution of two highly conserved amino acids, Glu378, located in the proposed UDP-glucose binding site, and His22, located close to the N-terminus, led to the complete loss of enzyme activity. A 3D model of this regiospecific betanidin and flavonoid glucosyltransferase was constructed and the active site modelled. This model was based on the crystallographic structure of a bacterial UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase from Amycolatopsis orientalis used as a template and the generated null mutations. To explain the observed inversion in the configuration of the bound sugar, semiempirical calculations favour an SN-1 reaction, as one plausible alternative to the generally proposed SN-2 mechanism discussed for plant natural product glucosyltransferases. The calculated structural data do not only explain the abstraction of a proton from the acceptor betanidin, but further imply that the reaction mechanism might also involve a catalytic triad, with similarities described for the serine protease family. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 480 TI - Constitutive overexpression of allene oxide cyclase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus) elevates levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids in flower organs but not in leaves JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2004 SP - 847-856 AU - Miersch, O. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 65 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.016 AB - The allene oxide cyclase (AOC), an enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis, occurs in vascular bundles and ovules of tomato flowers which exhibit a tissue-specific oxylipin signature (Plant J. 24, 113-126, 2000). Constitutive overexpression of the AOC did not led to altered levels of jasmonates in leaves, but these levels increased upon wounding or other stresses suggesting regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis by substrate availability (Plant J. 33, 577-589, 2003). Here, we show dramatic changes in levels of jasmonic acid (JA), of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), their methyl esters (JAME, OPDAME), and of dinor-OPDA in most flower organs upon constitutive overexpression of AOC. Beside a dominant occurrence of OPDAME and JA in most flower organs, the ratio among the various compounds was altered differentially in the organs of transgenic flowers, e.g. OPDAME increased up to 53-fold in stamen, and JA increased about 51-fold in buds and 7.5-fold in sepals. The increase in jasmonates and octadecanoids was accompanied by decreased levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds. Except for 16:2, the AOC overexpression led to a significant increase in free but not esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids in all flower organs. The data suggest different regulation of JA biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tomato.Constitutive overexpression of the AOC increases in all flower organs levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids, alters the ratios among the compounds, decreases levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds and increases levels of free but not of esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 481 TI - Local induction of the alc gene switch in transgenic tobacco plants by acetaldehyde JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2004 SP - 1566-1577 AU - Schaarschmidt, S. AU - Qu, N. AU - Strack, D. AU - Sonnewald, U. AU - Hause, B. VL - 45 UR - http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/ DO - 10.1093/pcp/pch177 AB - The alc promoter system, derived from the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, allows chemically regulated gene expression in plants and thereby the study of gene function as well as metabolic and developmental processes. In addition to ethanol, this system can be activated by acetaldehyde, described as the physiological inducer in A. nidulans. Here, we show that in contrast to ethanol, acetaldehyde allows tissue-specific activation of the alc promoter in transgenic tobacco plants. Soil drenching with aqueous acetaldehyde solutions at a concentration of 0.05% (v/v) resulted in the rapid and temporary induction of the alc gene expression system exclusively in roots. In addition, the split root system allows activation to be restricted to the treated part of the root. The temporary activation of the alc system by soil drenching with acetaldehyde could be prolonged over several weeks by subsequent applications at intervals of 7 d. This effect was demonstrated for the root-specific induction of a yeast-derived apoplast-located invertase under the control of the alcohol-inducible promoter system. In leaves, which exhibit a lower responsiveness to acetaldehyde than roots, the alc system was induced in the directly treated tissue only. Thus, acetaldehyde can be used as a local inducer of the alc gene expression system in tobacco plants. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 509 TI - Regiospecificity and kinetic properties of a plant natural product O-methyltransferase are determined by its N-terminal domain JO - FEBS Lett PY - 2004 SP - 159-162 AU - Vogt, T. VL - 561 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 210 TI - Molecular regulation of sinapate ester metabolism in Brassica napus: Expression of genes, properties of the encoded proteins and correlation of enzyme activities with metabolite accumulation JO - Plant J. PY - 2004 SP - 80-92 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Nehlin, L. AU - Strack, D. VL - 38 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 479 TI - The allene oxide cyclase of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Cloning and organ-specific expression JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2004 SP - 801-811 AU - Maucher, H. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Stein, N. AU - Prasa, M. AU - Zierold, U. AU - Schweizer, P. AU - Dorer, C. AU - Hause, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 65 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 211 TI - Serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2004 SP - 517-524 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 65 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 478 TI - Rapid determination of fungal colonization and arbuscule formation in roots of Medicago truncatula using real-time (RT) PCR JO - J. Plant Physiol PY - 2004 SP - 1379-1384 AU - Isayenkov, S. AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. VL - 161 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 209 TI - Boron deficiency causes accumulation of chlorogenic acid and caffeoyl polyamine conjugates in tobacco leaves JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 2004 SP - 879-881 AU - Camacho-Cristóbal, J.J. AU - Lunar, L. AU - Lafont, F. AU - Baumert, A. AU - González-Fontes, A. VL - 161 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 445 TI - The Arabidopsis NHL3 gene encodes a plasma membrane protein and its overexpression correlates with increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2003 SP - 2023-2033 AU - Varet, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hause, G. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Lee, J. VL - 132 UR - http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/132/4/2023.abstract DO - 10.​1104/​pp.​103.​020438 AB - The Arabidopsis genome contains a family of NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes that show homology to the nonrace-specific disease resistance (NDR1) and the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) harpin-induced (HIN1) genes. NHL3 is a pathogen-responsive member of this NHL gene family that is potentially involved in defense. In independent transgenic NHL3-overexpressing plant lines, a clear correlation between increased resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced NHL3 transcript levels was seen. These transgenic plants did not show enhanced pathogenesis-related gene expression or reactive oxygen species accumulation. Biochemical and localization experiments were performed to assist elucidation of how NHL3 may confer enhanced disease resistance. Gene constructs expressing amino-terminal c-myc-tagged or carboxyl-terminal hemagglutinin epitope (HA)-tagged NHL3 demonstrated membrane localization in transiently transformed tobacco leaves. Stable Arabidopsis transformants containing the NHL3-HA construct corroborated the findings observed in tobacco. The detected immunoreactive proteins were 10 kD larger than the calculated size and could be partially accounted for by the glycosylation state. However, the expected size was not attained with deglycosylation, suggesting possibly additional posttranslational modification. Detergent treatment, but not chemicals used to strip membrane-associated proteins, could displace the immunoreactive signal from microsomal fractions, showing that NHL3 is tightly membrane associated. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, coupled with two-phase partitioning techniques, revealed plasma membrane localization of NHL3-HA. This subcellular localization of NHL3 positions it at an initial contact site to pathogens and may be important in facilitating interception of pathogen-derived signals. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Stress and Developmental Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 318 TI - Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: biological, chemical, and molecular aspects JO - J. Chem. Ecol. PY - 2003 SP - 1955-1979 AU - Strack, D. AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 29 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/10886 DO - 10.1023/A:1025695032113 AB - Mycorrhizas are the most important mutualistic symbioses on earth. The most prevalent type are the arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) that develop between roots of most terrestrial plants and fungal species of the Zygomycota. The AM fungi are able to grow into the root cortex forming intercellular hyphae from which highly branched structures, arbuscules, originate within cortex cells. The arbuscules are responsible for nutrient exchange between the host and the symbiont, transporting carbohydrates from the plant to the fungus and mineral nutrients, especially phosphate, and water from the fungus to the plant. Plants adapt their phosphate uptake to the interaction with the AM fungus by synthesis of specific phosphate transporters. Colonization of root cells induces dramatic changes in the cytoplasmic organization: vacuole fragmentation, transformation of the plasma membrane to a periarbuscular membrane covering the arbuscule, increase of the cytoplasm volume and numbers of cell organelles, as well as movement of the nucleus into a central position. The plastids form a dense network covering the symbiotic interface. In some of these changes, microtubules are most likely involved. With regard to the molecular crosstalk between the two organisms,a number of phytohormones (cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonate) as well as various secondary metabolites have been examined: (i) Jasmonates occur at elevated level, which is accompanied by cell-specific expression of genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis that might be linked to strong carbohydrate sink function of AM roots and induced defense reactions; (ii) apocarotenoids (derivatives of mycorradicin and glycosylated cyclohexenones) accumulate in most mycorrhizal roots examined so far. Their biosynthesis via the nonmevalonate methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway has been studied resulting in new insights into AM-specific gene expression and biosynthesis of secondary isoprenoids. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 363 TI - Allene oxide cyclase dependence of the wound response and vascular bundle specific generation of jasmonates in tomato - amplification in wound-signalling JO - Plant J. PY - 2003 SP - 577-589 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Pitzschke, A. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Ryan, C. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 33 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01647.x AB - The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) catalyzed step in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis is important in the wound response of tomato. As shown by treatments with systemin and its inactive analog, by analysis of 35S::prosysteminsense and 35S::prosysteminantisense plants, the AOC expression and JA formation is systemin-dependent. Data are presented on amplification of the local wound response by activation of the constitutively occurring AOC and generation of JA, both in vascular bundles, whereas a lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase are equally distributed in all leaf tissues. The tissue-specific occurrence of AOC protein and generation of JA is kept upon wounding or other stresses, but is compromised in 35S::AOCsense plants, whereas 35S::AOCantisense plants exhibited residual AOC expression, less than 10 % rise in JA and no detectable expression of wound response genes. The systemin-dependency of AOC expression, the activation of JA biosynthesis occurring only upon substrate generation, and the tissue-specific occurrence of AOC including tissue-specific generation of JA suggest a pre-activated state of tomato leaves which allows local and rapid defense responses. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 229 TI - A novel Mg++-dependent O-methyltransferase in the phenylpropanoid metabolism of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum JO - J. Biol. Chem. PY - 2003 SP - 43961- 43972 AU - Ibdah, M. AU - Xing-Hai, Zhang AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 278 UR - http://www.jbc.org/ DO - 10.1074/jbc.M304932200 AB - Upon irradiation with elevated light intensities, the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) accumulates a complex pattern of methylated and glycosylated flavonol conju-gates in the upper epidermal layer. Identification of a flavonol methylating activity, partial purification of the enzyme, and sequencing of the corresponding peptide fragments revealed a novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent O-methyltransferase that was specific for flavon-oids and caffeoyl CoA. Cloning and functional expression of the corresponding cDNA veri-fied that the new methyltransferase is a multifunctional 26.6 kDa Mg++-dependent enzyme, which shows a significant sequence similarity to the cluster of caffeoyl coenzyme A-methylating enzymes. Functional analysis of highly homologous members from chickweed (Stellaria longipes), Arabidopsis thaliana, and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) demonstrated that the enzymes from the ice plant, chickweed and A. thaliana possess a broader substrate specificity towards o-hydroquinone-like structures than previously anticipated for Mg++-dependent O-methyltransferases, and are distinctly different from the tobacco enzyme. Besides caffeoyl CoA and flavonols, a high specificity was also observed for caffeoylglucose, a compound never before reported to be methylated by any plant O-methyltransferase. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence and differences in acceptor specificities among both animal and plant OMTs, we propose that the enzymes from the Centrospermae, along with the predicted gene product from A. thaliana, form a novel subclass within the caf-feoyl coenzyme A-dependent O-methyltransferases, with potential divergent functions not restricted to lignin monomer biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 205 TI - A flavonol O-methyltransferase from Catharanthus roseus performing two sequential methylations JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2003 SP - 127-137 AU - Cacace, S. AU - Schröder, G. AU - Wehinger, E. AU - Strack, D. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 62 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00483-1 AB - Protein extracts from dark-grown cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) contained several O-methyltransferase (OMT) activities, including the 16-hydroxytabersonine O-methyltransferase (16HT-OMT) in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. This enzyme was enriched through several purification steps, including affinity chromatography on adenosine agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified protein preparation revealed a protein band at the size expected for plant OMTs (38–43 kDa). Mass spectrometry indicated two dominant protein species of similar mass in this band, and sequences of tryptic peptides showed similarities to known OMTs. Homology-based RT-PCR identified cDNAs for four new OMTs. Two of these cDNAs (CrOMT2 and CrOMT4) encoded the proteins dominant in the preparation enriched for 16HT-OMT. The proteins were closely related (73% identity), but both shared only 48-53% identity with the closest relatives found in the public databases. The enzyme functions were investigated with purified recombinant proteins after cDNA expression in Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly, both proteins had no detectable 16HT-OMT activity, and CrOMT4 was inactive with all substrates investigated. CrOMT2 was identified as a flavonoid OMT that was expressed in dark-grown cell cultures and copurified with 16HT-OMT. It represented a new type of OMT that performs two sequential methylations at the 3′- and 5′-positions of the B-ring in myricetin (flavonol) and dihydromyricetin (dihydroflavonol). The resulting methylation pattern is characteristic for C. roseus flavonol glycosides and anthocyanins, and it is proposed that CrOMT2 is involved in their biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 442 TI - Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Plant Mol. Biol. PY - 2003 SP - 895-911 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Kurz, T. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 51 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1023049319723 DO - 10.1023/A:1023049319723 AB - In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOC genes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 506 TI - Glycosylated natural products T2 - Carbohydrate-based Drug Discovery PB - PY - 2003 SP - 685-711 AU - Thorson, J.S. AU - Vogt, T. VL - UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/3527602437 SN - 9783527306329 (Print) 9783527602438 (Online) DO - 10.1002/3527602437.ch25 AB - A2 - Wong, C.-H. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 436 TI - Enzymes of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Occur in Tomato Sieve Elements JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2003 SP - 643-648 AU - Hause, B. AU - Hause, G. AU - Kutter, C. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 44 UR - http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/ DO - 10.1093/pcp/pcg072 AB - The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is a plastid-located enzyme in the biosynthesis of the signaling compound jasmonic acid (JA). In tomato, AOC occurs specifically in ovules and vascular bundles [Hause et al. (2000) Plant J. 24; 113]. Immunocytological analysis of longitudinal sections of petioles and flower stalks revealed the occurrence of AOC in companion cells (CC) and sieve elements (SE). Electron microscopic analysis led to the conclusion that the AOC-containing structures of SE are plastids. AOC was not detected in SE of 35S::AOCantisense plants. The enzymes preceding AOC in JA biosynthesis, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and the lipoxygenase, were also detected in SE. In situ hybridization showed that the SE are free of AOC-mRNA suggesting AOC protein traffic from CC to SE via plasmodesmata. A control by in situ hybridization of AOS mRNA coding for a protein with a size above the exclusion limit of plasmodesmata indicated mRNA in CC and SE. The data suggest that SE carry the capacity to form 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, the unique precursor of JA. Together with preferential generation of JA in vascular bundles [Stenzel et al. (2003) Plant J. 33: 577], the data support a role of JA in systemic wound signaling. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 312 TI - Detoxification of ferulic acid by ectomycorrhizal fungi JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2003 SP - 117-121 AU - Münzenberger, B. AU - Hammer, E. AU - Wray, V. AU - Schauer, F. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 13 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/572 DO - 10.1007/s00572-003-0226-9 AB - The ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria amethystina and Lactarius deterrimus grown in liquid culture were used to study the fate of added ferulic acid. Laccaria amethystina degraded ferulic acid to the major metabolite vanillic acid. The intermediate vanillin was not detected. Lactarius deterrimus showed a completely different detoxification pattern. Two dimers and one trimer of ferulic acid could be identified as polymerization products of this fungus. A bioassay of the possible biological activities of ferulic acid and vanillic acid on these fungi revealed that vanillic acid was less toxic than ferulic acid for Laccaria amethystina but that both phenolic acids were toxic for Lactarius deterrimus. The results are discussed with respect to ectomycorrhizal fungal growth in the organic layer of forest soils and between living root cells of ectomycorrhizas. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 437 TI - Occurrence of the allene oxide cyclase in different organs and tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2003 SP - 971-980 AU - Hause, B. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 64 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00447-3 AB - Occurrence of an essential enzyme in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, the allene oxide cyclase, (AOC) was analyzed in different developmental stages and various organs of Arabidopsis thaliana plants by immuno blot analysis and immunocytological approaches. Levels of AOC and of the two preceding enzymes in JA biosynthesis increased during seedling development accompanied by increased levels of JA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid levels after 4 and 8 weeks. Most tissues including all vascular bundles and that of flower buds contain AOC protein. Flowers shortly before opening, however, contain AOC protein preferentially in ovules, stigma cells and vascular bundles, whereas in anthers and pollen AOC could not be detected. The putative roles of AOC and JA in development are discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 438 TI - Novel plasmid vectors for homologous transformation on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the JIP23 cDNA in sense and antisense orientation JO - Cereal Res. Comm. PY - 2003 SP - 17-24 AU - Monostori, T. AU - Schulze, J. AU - Sharma, V.K. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 31 UR - http://www.akademiai.com/loi/0806 AB - The most abundant jasmonate-induced protein (JIP) in barley leaves is a 23 kDa protein (JIP23). Its function, however, is unknown. In order to analyze its function by homologous transformation, new plasmid vectors have been constructed. They carry the cDNA coding for JIP23 in sense or antisense orientation under the control of the Ubi-l-promoter as well as the Pat resistance gene under the control of the 35S promoter. Barley mesophyll protoplasts were transiently transformed with the sense constructs. PAT activity and immunological detection of JIP23 could be achieved in transformed protoplasts but not in untransformed protoplasts indicating that the construct was active. Thus, these new vectors are suitable for stable transformation of barley. Carrying a multiple cloning site (MCS), these vectors can be used now in a wide range of transformation of barley. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 230 TI - Recent advances in betalain research JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2003 SP - 247-269 AU - Strack, D. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 62 UR - AB - Review Betalains replace the anthocyanins in flowers and fruits of plants of most families of the Caryophyllales. Unexpectedly, they were also found in some higher fungi. Whereas the anthocyanin-analogous functions of betalains in flower and fruit colouration are obvious, their role in fungi remains obscure. The nature of newly identified betalains as well as final structure elucidation of earlier putatively describedcompounds published within the last decade is compiled in this report. Recent advances in research on betalain biosynthesis is alsocovered, including description of some 'early' reactions, i.e. betalain-specific dopa formation in plants and fungi and extradiolic dopacleavage in fungi. Work on betalain-specific glucosyltransferases (GTs) has given new insights into the evolution of secondary plantenzymes. It is proposed that these GTs are phylogenetically related to flavonoid GTs. It was found that the decisive steps in betalainbiosynthesis, i.e. condensation of the betalain chromophore betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa and amino acids or amines in the respectivealdimine formation of the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins, are most likely to be non-enzymatic. Betalains have workers in applied fields because of their use for food colouring and their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties forprotection against certain oxidative stress-related disorders. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 444 TI - The lipoxygenase pathway in mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula T2 - PB - Advanced Research on Plant Lipids, Kluwer Academic Publishers PY - 2003 SP - 287-290 AU - Stumpe, M. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 0 UR - AB - A2 - Murata, N., Yamada, M., Nishida, I., Okuyama, H., Sekija, J., Hajime, W. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 208 TI - Recruitment of serine carboxypeptidase-related proteins into phenylpropanoid metabolism T2 - PB - Polyphenols 2002: Recent Advances in Polyphenols Research., Elwatanya Faculté des Sciences, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco) PY - 2003 SP - 50-61 AU - Strack, D. AU - Milkowski, C. VL - 1 UR - AB - A2 - El Hadrami, I., Daayf, F. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 475 TI - Plastiden bei der arbuskulären Mykorrhizasymbiose T2 - PB - Wurzelinduzierte Bodenvorgänge, B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart PY - 2003 SP - 39-42 AU - Fester, T. VL - 14 UR - AB - A2 - Merbach, W., Egle, K., Augustin, J. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 446 TI - The Tn-antigen specific lectin from Glechoma hederacea is an insecticidal protein with an unusual physiology JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2003 SP - 1322-1334 AU - Wang, W. AU - Hause, B. AU - Peumans, W.J. AU - Smagghe, G. AU - Mackie, A. AU - Fraser, R. AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. VL - 132 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 206 TI - Stilbenecarboxylate biosynthesis: A new function in the family of chalcone synthase-related proteins JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2003 SP - 271-286 AU - Eckermann, C. AU - Schröder, G. AU - Eckermann, S. AU - Strack, D. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Schneider, B. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 62 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 440 TI - Novel mode of hormone induction of tandem tomato invertase genes in floral tissues JO - Plant Mol. Biol. PY - 2003 SP - 191-201 AU - Proels, R.K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Berger, S. AU - Roitsch, T. VL - 52 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 476 TI - Transcriptional activation of jasmonate biosynthesis enzymes is not reflected at protein level T2 - PB - Advanced Research on Plant Lipids, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht PY - 2003 SP - 267-270 AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 0 UR - AB - A2 - Murata, N., Yamada, M., Nishida, I., Okuyama, H., Sekija, J., Hajime, W. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 207 TI - Antioxidant flavonoids from leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2003 SP - 219-228 AU - Peng, Z.F. AU - Strack, D. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Subramaniam, R. AU - Goh, N.K. AU - Chia, T.F. AU - Tan, S.N. AU - Chia, L.S. VL - 62 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 474 TI - A member of the germin-like protein family is a highly conserved mycorrrhiza-specific induced gene JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2003 SP - 1208-1214 AU - Doll, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Demchenko, K. AU - Pawlowski, K. AU - Krajinski, F. VL - 44 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 539 TI - Isolation and identification of trace lignans, arctiin and arctigenin, in Arctium lappa L. leaves JO - Chinese J. Chromatography PY - 2003 SP - 52-55 AU - Liu, S. AU - Chen, K. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 21 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 505 TI - Isolation and identification of two flavone glycosides in burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves by polyamide column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography in combination with lectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry JO - Chinese J. Anal. Chem PY - 2003 SP - 1023 AU - Liu, S. AU - Chen, K. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 31 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 439 TI - Histochemical analysis of phenylphenalenone-related compounds in Xiphidium caeruleum (Haemodoraceae) JO - Planta PY - 2003 SP - 881-889 AU - Opitz, S. AU - Schnitzler, J.-P. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schneider, B. VL - 216 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 300 TI - Accumulation of tyrosol glucoside in transgenic potato plants expressing a parsley tyrosine decarboxylase JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2002 SP - 683-689 AU - Landtag, J. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Degenkolb, T. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. AU - Rosahl, S. VL - 60 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00161-9 AB - As part of the response to pathogen infection, potato plants accumulate soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics such as hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides. Since incorporation of these compounds into the cell wall leads to a fortified barrier against pathogens, raising the amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides might positively affect the resistance response. To this end, we set out to increase the amount of tyramine, one of the substrates of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)-transferase reaction, by placing a cDNA encoding a pathogen-induced tyrosine decarboxylase from paisley under the control of the 35S promoter and introducing the construct into potato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. While no alterations were observed in the pattern and quantity of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds in transgenic plants, the soluble fraction contained several new compounds. The major one was isolated and identified as tyrosol glucoside by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry and NMR analyses. Our results indicate that expression of a tyrosine decarboxylase in potato does not channel tyramine into the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)-transferase reaction but rather unexpectedly, into a different pathway leading to the formation of a potential storage compound. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 450 TI - A mycorrhiza-responsive protein in wheat roots JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2002 SP - 219-222 AU - Fester, T. AU - Kiess, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 12 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/572 DO - 10.1007/s00572-002-0173-x AB - A small protein, designated Myk15, was found to be strongly induced in wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. This protein, which is most abundant in root fractions characterized by strong mycorrhizal colonization, has been characterized using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and microsequencing. It has an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.5. The N-terminal sequence has high similarity to a peptide sequence deduced from an expressed sequence tag (EST) clone derived from Medicago truncatula roots colonized by G. intraradices. This EST clone is predicted to code for a protein with a similar size and isoelectric point as Myk15. The N-terminus of the deduced M. truncatula protein contains a highly hydrophobic stretch of 24 amino acid residues preceding the region with high similarity to the Myk15 N-terminus. This hydrophobic stretch is predicted to form a transmembrane cc-helix and may correspond to a cleavable targeting domain. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 447 TI - Jasmonate-induced lipid peroxidation in barley leaves initiated by distinct 13-LOX forms of chloroplasts JO - Biol. Chem. PY - 2002 SP - 1645-1657 AU - Bachmann, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Garbe, E. AU - Vörös, K. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 383 UR - http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bchm.2002.383.issue-10/bc.2002.185/bc.2002.185.xml DO - 10.1515/BC.2002.185 AB - In addition to a previously characterized 13-lipoxygenase of 100 kDa encoded by LOX2:Hv:1 [Vörös et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (1998), 36 44], two fulllength cDNAs (LOX2:Hv:2, LOX2:Hv:3) were isolated from barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) and characterized. Both of them encode 13-lipoxygenases with putative target sequences for chloroplast import. Immunogold labeling revealed preferential, if not exclusive, localization of lipoxygenase proteins in the stroma. The ultrastructure of the chloroplast was dramatically altered following methyl jasmonate treatment, indicated by a loss of thylakoid membranes, decreased number of stacks and appearance of numerous osmiophilic globuli. The three 13-lipoxygenases are differentially expressed during treatment with jasmonate, salicylate, glucose or sorbitol. Metabolite profiling of free linolenic acid and free linoleic acid, the substrates of lipoxygenases, in water floated or jasmonatetreated leaves revealed preferential accumulation of linolenic acid. Remarkable amounts of free 9- as well as 13-hydroperoxy linolenic acid were found. In addition, metabolites of these hydroperoxides, such as the hydroxy derivatives and the respective aldehydes, appeared following methyl jasmonate treatment. These findings were substantiated by metabolite profiling of isolated chloroplasts, and subfractions including the envelope, the stroma and the thylakoids, indicating a preferential occurrence of lipoxygenasederived products in the stroma and in the envelope. These data revealed jasmonateinduced activation of the hydroperoxide lyase and reductase branch within the lipoxygenase pathway and suggest differential activity of the three 13-lipoxygenases under different stress conditions. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 452 TI - Induction of jasmonate biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal barley roots JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2002 SP - 1213-1220 AU - Hause, B. AU - Maier, W. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Strack, D. VL - 130 UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/69/ DO - 10.1104/pp.006007 AB - Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Salome) roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, leads to elevated levels of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and its amino acid conjugate JA-isoleucine, whereas the level of the JA precursor, oxophytodienoic acid, remains constant. The rise in jasmonates is accompanied by the expression of genes coding for an enzyme of JA biosynthesis (allene oxide synthase) and of a jasmonate-induced protein (JIP23). In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that expression of these genes occurred cell specifically within arbuscule-containing root cortex cells. The concomitant gene expression indicates that jasmonates are generated and act within arbuscule-containing cells. By use of a near-synchronous mycorrhization, analysis of temporal expression patterns showed the occurrence of transcript accumulation 4 to 6 d after the appearance of the first arbuscules. This suggests that the endogenous rise in jasmonates might be related to the fully established symbiosis rather than to the recognition of interacting partners or to the onset of interaction. Because the plant supplies the fungus with carbohydrates, a model is proposed in which the induction of JA biosynthesis in colonized roots is linked to the stronger sink function of mycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 453 TI - Immunolocalization of 1-O-sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - 26-32 AU - Hause, B. AU - Meyer, K. AU - Viitanen, V. AU - Chapple, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 215 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/425 DO - 10.1007/s00425-001-0716-y AB - The serine carboxypeptidase-like protein 1-O-sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT) catalyzes the transfer of the sinapoyl moiety of 1-O-sinapoylglucose to malate in the formation of sinapoylmalate in some members of the Brassicaceae. Rabbit polyclonal monospecific antibodies were raised against the recombinant SMT produced in Escherichia coli from the corresponding Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cDNA. Immunoblot analysis of protein from different Arabidopsis tissues showed that the SMT is produced in all plant organs, except in the seeds and young seedlings. The enzyme was most abundant in older seedlings as well as in rosette leaves and the flowering stem of the plant. Minor amounts were found in the cauline leaves, flower buds and siliques. Traces were detected in the root and flowers. Arabidopsis and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants expressing the full-length Arabidopsis SMT containing an N-terminal signal peptide showed apparent molecular masses of the protein of 52-55 kDa. The difference of ca. 8 kDa compared to the recombinant protein produced in E. coli was shown to be due to post-translational N-glycosylation of SMT in plants. Immunofluorescent labeling of Arabidopsis leaf sections localized SMT to the central vacuoles of mesophyll and epidermal cells. Comparable leaf sections of an SMT deletion mutant showed no vacuolar immunofluorescent labeling. We conclude that Arabidopsis SMT is synthesized as a precursor protein that is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum where the signal peptide is removed. The correct N-terminus of the recombinantly produced SMT protein lacking the signal peptide was confirmed by Edman degradation. The protein is probably glycosylated in the Golgi apparatus from where it is subsequently routed to the vacuole. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 449 TI - Occurrence and localization of apocarotenoids in arbuscular mycorrhizal plant roots JO - Plant Cell Physiol PY - 2002 SP - 256-265 AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Halfmann, K. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Hause, G. AU - Strack, D. VL - 43 UR - http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/ DO - 10.1093/pcp/pcf029 AB - The core structure of the yellow pigment from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) maize roots contains the apocarotenoids mycorradicin (an acyclic C14 polyene) and blumenol C cellobioside (a C13 cyclohexenone diglucoside). The pigment seems to be a mixture of different esterification products of these apocarotenoids. It is insoluble in water and accumulates as hydrophobic droplets in the vacuoles of root cortical cells. Screening 58 species from 36 different plant families, we detected mycorradicin in mycorrhizal roots of all Liliopsida analyzed and of a considerable number of Rosopsida, but also species were found in which mycorradicin was undetectable in mycorrhizal roots. Kinetic experiments and microscopic analyses indicate that accumulation of the yellow pigment is correlated with the concomitant degradation of arbuscules and the extensive plastid network covering these haustorium-like fungal structures. The role of the apocarotenoids in mycorrhizal roots is still unknown. The potential C40 carotenoid precursors, however, are more likely to be of functional importance in the development and functioning of arbuscules. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 231 TI - Spectral dependence and dose response of flavonol and betacyanin accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum under enhanced UV radiation JO - Plant Cell Environm. PY - 2002 SP - 1145-1154 AU - Ibdah, M. AU - Krins, A. AU - Seidlitz, H.K. AU - Heller, W. AU - Strack, D. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 25 UR - AB - Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (Aizoaceae) is a drought and salt tolerant halophyte, able to endure harsh environmental conditions. Upon irradiation with high light irradiance (1200 - 1500 µmol·m-2·s-1) it displays a rapid cellspecific accumulation of plant secondary metabolites in the upper leaf epidermis, a phenomenon not detectable with salt or drought treatment. The accumulation of these compounds the betacyanins and acylated flavonol glycosides increases if the plants are exposed to polychromatic radiation with a progressively decreasing short wave cut-off in the UV range. The response is localized in epidermal bladder cells on the tips of young leaves and epidermal layers of fully expanded leaves. We demonstrate that the accumulation of flavonols and betacyanins can be described by a weakly sigmoid dose function in combination with an exponential de-crease of the plant's response function with increasing wavelength. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 232 TI - Substrate specificity and sequence analysis define a polyphyletic origin of betanidin 5- and 6-O-glucosyltransferase from Dorotheanthus bellidiformis JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - , 492-495 AU - Vogt, T. VL - 214 UR - AB - Betanidin 6-O-glucosyltransferase (6-GT) is involved in the gly-cosylation of betacyanins, which replace the chromogenic anthocyanins as flower colorants in the Caryophyllales. The 6-GT cDNA was cloned from a cDNA library of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis and the amino acid and nucleotide sequences were shown to be distinctly different from the corresponding betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5-GT) from the same plant species. Although both enzymes share very similar substrates, the proteins show only 19 % amino acid sequence identity. In contrast, the protein sequence of the 6-GT showed signifi-cant identity to GTs from other species and may identify a new cluster of putative anthocyanidin GTs. Therefore, 6-GT and 5-GT apparently have evolved independently from ancestral glucosyltransferases involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 457 TI - Jasmonates and octadecanoids - signals in plant stress response and development T2 - PB - Academic Press New York PY - 2002 SP - 165-221 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 72 UR - AB - A2 - Moldave, K. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 592 TI - Two distantly related genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthases: differential regulation in shoots and apocarotenoid-accumulating mycorrhizal roots JO - Plant J. PY - 2002 SP - 243-254 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Hans, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 31 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 455 TI - Two distinct jacalin-related lectins with a different specificity and sub-cellular location are major vegetative storage proteins in the bark of the mulberry (Morus nigra) tree JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2002 SP - 757-769 AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hu, J. AU - Barre, A. AU - Rougé, P. AU - Proost, P. AU - Peumans, W.J. VL - 130 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 320 TI - Two distantly related genes encoding 1-deoxy-D- xylulose 5-phosphate synthases: differential regulation in shoots and apocarotenoid- accumulating mycorrhizal roots JO - Plant J. PY - 2002 SP - 243-254 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Hans, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 31 UR - AB - Isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor of isoprenoids, is synthesized by two separate routes, one in the cytosol and the other in plastids. The initial step of the plastidial pathway is catalysed by 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), which was previously thought to be encoded by a single-copy gene. We have identified two distinct classes of DXS-like cDNAs from the model legume Medicago truncatula. The deduced mature MtDXS1 and MtDXS2 proteins, excluding the predicted plastid-targeting peptides, are similar in size (72.7 and 71.2 kDa) yet share only 70 % identity in their amino acid sequences, and both encode functional DXS proteins as shown by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Available DXS sequences from other plants can easily be assigned to either class 1 or class 2. Partial sequences of multiple DXS genes in a single genome may be found in the databases of several monocot and dicot plants. Blot analyses of RNA from M. truncatula, maize, tomato and tobacco demonstrate preferential expression of DXS1 genes in many developing plant tissues except roots. By contrast, DXS2 transcript levels are low in most tissues but are strongly stimulated in roots upon colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, correlated with accumulation of carotenoids and apocarotenoids. Monoterpene- synthesizing gland cells of leaf trichomes appear to be another site of DXS2 gene activity. The potential importance of DXS1 in many housekeeping functions and a still hypothetical role of DXS2 in the biosynthesis of secondary isoprenoids is discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 587 TI - Stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - 148-154 AU - Fester, T. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Giuliano, G. AU - Bramley, P.M. AU - Fraser, P.D. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 216 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 451 TI - Stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - 148-154 AU - Fester, T. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Giuliano, G. AU - Bramley, P.M. AU - Fraser, P.D. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 216 UR - AB - Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is correlated with accumulation of various isoprenoids, i.e. acyclic C14 polyene 'mycorradicin' and C13 cyclohexenone derivatives. We present data indicating a strong stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in such roots. Carotenoid profiling revealed mycorrhiza-specific accumulation of +-carotene in Zea mays and Medicago truncatula. Precursor accumulation after inhibition of phytoene desaturase (Pds) activity by norflurazon indicated an increased phytoene biosynthetic capacity in mycorrhizal roots of all species analyzed. Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed with a PDS promoter-GUS construct showed a cell-specific induction of PDS promoter activity in root cells containing arbuscules. Mycorradicin biosynthesis and, partially, mycorrhization were impaired in maize mutants deficient in carotenoid biosynthesis. These data indicate that (1) mycorradicin is probably synthesized via a C40 precursor carotenoid, (2) carotenoid biosynthesis is induced in mycorrhizal roots, (3) induction occurs, at least partially, at the transcriptional level, and (4) that this may play a functional role during mycorrhization. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 319 TI - Stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - 148-154 AU - Fester, T. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Lohse, S. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Giuliano, G. AU - Bramley, P.M. AU - Fraser, P.D. AU - Hause, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 216 UR - AB - Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is correlated with accumulation of various isoprenoids, i.e. acyclic C14 polyene 'mycorradicin' and C13 cyclohexenone derivatives. We present data indicating a strong stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in such roots. Carotenoid profiling revealed mycorrhiza-specific accumulation of b-carotene in Zea mays and Medicago truncatula. Precursor accumulation after inhibition of phytoene desaturase (Pds) activity by norflurazon indicated an increased phytoene biosynthetic capacity in mycorrhizal roots of all species analyzed. Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed with a PDS promoter-GUS construct showed a cell-specific induction of PDS promoter activity in root cells containing arbuscules. Mycorradicin biosynthesis and, partially, mycorrhization were impaired in maize mutants deficient in carotenoid biosynthesis. These data indicate that (1) mycorradicin is probably synthesized via a C40 precursor carotenoid, (2) carotenoid biosynthesis is induced in mycorrhizal roots, (3) induction occurs, at least partially, at the transcriptional level, and (4) that this may play a functional role during mycorrhization. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 585 TI - Occurrence and localization of the yellow pigment in arbuscular mycorrhizal plant roots JO - Plant Cell Physiol. PY - 2002 SP - 256-265 AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Schmidt, D. AU - Halfmann, K. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Hause, G. AU - Strack, D. VL - 43 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 454 TI - Mtha1, a plasma membrane H+-ATPase gene from Medicago truncatula, shows arbuscule-specific induced expression in mycorrhizal tissue JO - Plant Biol. PY - 2002 SP - 754-761 AU - Krajinski, F. AU - Hause, B. AU - Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. AU - Franken, P. VL - 4 UR - AB - Transport processes between plant and fungal cells are key elements in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), where H+-ATPases are considered to be involved in active uptake of nutrients from the symbiotic interface. Genes encoding H+-ATPases were identified in the genome of Medicago truncatula and three cDNA fragments of the H+-ATPase gene family (Mtha1-3) were obtained by RT-PCR using RNA from M. truncatula mycorrhizal roots as template. While Mtha2 and Mtha3 appeared to be constitutively expressed in roots and unaffected by AM development, transcripts of Mtha1 could only be detected in AM tissues and not in controls. Further analyses by RT-PCR revealed that Mtha1 transcripts are not detectable in shoots and phosphate availability did not affect RNA accumulation of the gene. Localization of transcripts by in situ hybridization on AM tissues showed that Mtha1 RNA accumulates only in cells containing fungal arbuscules. This is the first report of arbuscule-specific induced expression of a plant H+-ATPase gene in mycorrhizal tissues. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 586 TI - A mycorrhiza-responsive protein in wheat roots JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2002 SP - 219-222 AU - Fester, T. AU - Kiess, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 12 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 588 TI - Induction of jasmonate biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal barley roots JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2002 SP - 1213-1220 AU - Hause, B. AU - Maier, W. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Strack, D. VL - 130 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 448 TI - Jasmonic acid methyl ester induces the synthesis of a cytoplasmic/nuclear chito-oligosaccharide binding lectin in tobacco leaves JO - FASEB J PY - 2002 SP - 905-907 (U225-251) AU - Chen, Y. AU - Peumans, W.J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Bras, J. AU - Kumar, M. AU - Proost, P. AU - Barre, A. AU - Rouge, P. AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. VL - 16 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 589 TI - Immunolocalization of 1-O-sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana JO - Planta PY - 2002 SP - 26-32 AU - Hause, B. AU - Meyer, K. AU - Viitanen, P.V. AU - Chapple, C. AU - Strack, D. VL - 215 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 530 TI - Chemical stability and colorant properties of betaxanthin pigments from Celosia argentea JO - J. Agric. Food Chem PY - 2001 SP - 4429-4435 AU - Cai, Y. AU - Sun, M. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Corke, H. VL - 49 UR - http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jafcau DO - 10.1021/jf0104735 AB - The chemical stability and colorant properties of three betaxanthins recently identified from Celosia argentea varieties were evaluated. Lyophilized betaxanthin powders from yellow inflorescences of Celosia exhibited bright yellow color and high color purity with strong hygroscopicity. The aqueous solutions containing these betaxanthins were bright yellow in the pH range 2.2−7.0, and they were most stable at pH 5.5. The betaxanthins in a model system (buffer) were susceptible to heat, and found to be as unstable as red betacyanins (betanin and amaranthine) at high temperatures (>40 °C), but more stable at 40 °C with the exclusion of light and air. The three betaxanthins had slightly higher pigment retention than amaranthine/isoamaranthine in crude extracts at 22 °C, as verified by HPLC analysis. Lyophilized betaxanthins had much better storage stability (mean 95.0% pigment retention) than corresponding aqueous solutions (14.8%) at 22 °C after 20 weeks. Refrigeration (4 °C) significantly increased pigment retention of aqueous betaxanthins to 75.5%. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 535 TI - Bifunktionelle Polyphenoloxidasen: neuartige Funktionen in der Biosynthese pflanzlicher Farbstoffe JO - Angew. Chem PY - 2001 SP - 3907-3911 AU - Strack, D. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 113 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1521-3757 DO - 10.1002/1521-3757(20011015)113:20<3907::AID-ANGE3907>3.0.CO;2-J AB - Bisher war die Funktion der Polyphenoloxidasen (PPO) unklar. Inzwischen konnte aber gezeigt werden, dass eine Tyrosinase an der Betacyan-Biosynthese des Portulakröschens (siehe Bild) und der Roten Rübe sowie eine Chalkon-spezifische PPO an der Auronbildung in gelben Löwenmaulblüten beteiligt ist. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 533 TI - Betalains of Celosia argentea JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2001 SP - 159-165 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Cai, Y. AU - Degenkolb, T. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Corke, H. VL - 58 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00141-8 AB - The betalains of yellow, orange and red inflorescences of common cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata) were compared and proved to be qualitatively identical to those of feathered amaranth (Celosia argentea var. plumosa). In addition to the known compounds amaranthin and betalamic acid, the structures of three yellow pigments were elucidated to be immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine and (S)-tryptophan by various spectroscopic techniques and comparison to synthesized reference compounds; the latter two are new to plants. Among the betacyanins occurring in yellow inflorescences in trace amounts, the presence of 2-descarboxy-betanidin, a dopamine-derived betacyanin, has been ascertained. The detection of high dopamine concentration may be of toxicological relevance in use of yellow inflorescences as a vegetable and in traditional Chinese medicine, common uses for the red inflorescences of common cockscomb. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 233 TI - Glucosyltransferases in secondary plant metabolism: tranquilizers and stimulant controllers JO - Planta PY - 2001 SP - 164-174 AU - Jones, P. AU - Vogt, T. VL - 213 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/425 DO - 10.1007/s004250000492 AB - Plants are exposed to a wide range of toxic and bioactive low-molecular-weight molecules from both exogenous and endogenoussources. Glycosylation is one of the primary sedative mechanisms that plants utilise in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Recently, a range of glycosyltransferases has been characterized in detail with regard to substrate specificity. The next step in increasingour understanding of the biology of glycosylation will require information regarding the exact role of individual glycosyltransferases inplanta, as well as an insight into their potential involvement in metabolon-complexes. Hopefully, this will answer how a large number of glycosyltransferases with broad, rather than narrow, substrate specificity can be constrained in order to avoid interfering with other pathways of primary and secondary metabolism. These and other topics are discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 225 TI - Formation and occurrence of dopamine-derived betacyanins JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2001 SP - 429-436 AU - Kobayashi, N. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 56 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00383-6 AB - In light of the fact that the main betaxanthin (miraxanthin V) and the major betacyanin (2-descarboxy-betanidin) in hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are both dopamine-derived, the occurrence of similar structures for the minor betacyanins was also suggested. By HPLC comparison with the betacyanins obtained by dopamine administration to beet seedlings, enzymatic hydrolysis, LCMS and 1H NMR analyses, the minor betacyanins from hairy roots were identified as 2-descarboxy-betanin and its 6'-O-malonyl derivative. A short-term dopamine administration experiment with fodder beet seedlings revealed that the condensation step between 2-descarboxy-cyclo-Dopa and betalamic acid is the decisive reaction, followed by glucosylation and acylation. From these data a pathway for the biosynthesis of dopamine-derived betalains is proposed. Furthermore, the occurrence of these compounds in various cell and hairy root cultures as well as beet plants (Fodder and Garden Beet Group) is shown. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 782 TI - Die arbuskuläre Mykorrhiza: eine unterirdische Lebensgemeinschaft JO - Biologie in unserer Zeit PY - 2001 SP - 286-295 AU - Strack, D. AU - Fester, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Walter, M.H. VL - 31 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1521-415X DO - 10.1002/1521-415X(200109)31:5<286::AID-BIUZ286>3.0.CO;2-G AB - Pflanzen und bestimmte Pilze haben im Laufe ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichte „gelernt”, in einer engen Assoziation im Boden, der Mykorrhiza, eine äußerst erfolgreiche Symbiose miteinander einzugehen. Arbuskuläre Mykorrhizapilze helfen Pflanzen sich auf nährstoffarmen Böden ausreichend mit Wasser, Nährsalzen und Spurenelementen zu versorgen und fördern entscheidend Diversität und Produktivität von Pflanzengesellschaften. Darüber hinaus zeigen mykorrhizierte Pflanzen eine erhöhte Widerstandsfähigkeit gegen Pathogenbefall. Im Gegenzug „bezahlt” die Pflanze den Pilz für diesen Gewinn mit Kohlenhydraten in Form einfacher Zucker (Glucose, Fructose). Durch manche Erfolge in der Erforschung der Mykorrhiza auf Metaboliten- und Genebene beginnen wir allmählich zu erahnen, wie komplex die molekularen Interaktionen dieser Symbiose sind. Es ist zu erwarten, dass das steigende Interesse an der Mykorrhizaforschung zu neuen Einsichten in die Strategien von Pflanzen und Pilzen in der Entwicklung mutualistisch-symbiontischer Assoziationen führen wird. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 783 TI - Bifunctional polyphenol oxidases: novel functions in plant pigment biosynthesis JO - Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. PY - 2001 SP - 3791-3794 AU - Strack, D. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 40 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1521-3773%2820011015%2940:20%3C3791::AID-ANIE3791%3E3.0.CO;2-T/full DO - 10.1002/1521-3773 AB - Enzymes in search of a function, for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), described as such, this situation has changed recently. A tyrosinase is involved in betacyanin biosynthesis in common portulaca (see picture) and red beet, and a chalcone-specific PPO is responsible for the formation of aurones in yellow snapdragon flowers. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 202 TI - Patterns of phenylpropanoids in non-inoculated and potato virus Y-inoculated leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing yeast-derived invertase JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2001 SP - 535541 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Mock, H.-P. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Herbers, K. AU - Sonnewald, U. AU - Strack, D. VL - 56 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 204 TI - Enzymes involved in hydroxycinnamate metabolism T2 - Flavonoids and Other Polyphenols PB - Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, Sheffield PY - 2001 SP - 7081 AU - Strack, D. VL - 335 UR - AB - A2 - Packer, L. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 460 TI - Tomato ribonuclease LX with the functional ER retention motif HDEF is expressed during programmed cell death processes including xylem differentiation, germination and senescence JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2001 SP - 436-449 AU - Lehmann, K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Altmann, D. AU - Köck, M. VL - 127 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 584 TI - Reorganization of tobacco root plastids during arbuscule development JO - Planta PY - 2001 SP - 864-868 AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. AU - Hause, B. VL - 213 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 458 TI - Reorganization of tobacco root plastids during arbuscule development JO - Planta PY - 2001 SP - 864-868 AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. AU - Hause, B. VL - 213 UR - AB - In the present paper we analyzed plastid populations labeled by the green fluorescent protein in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). We show by confocal laser scanning microscopy (i) a dramatic increase in these plastids in mycorrhizal roots and (ii) the formation of dense plastid networks covering the symbiotic interface of the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the arbuscule. These cytological observations point to an important role of root cortical cell plastids in the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 456 TI - Purification, characterization, immunolocalization and structural analysis of the abundant cytoplasmic beta-amylase from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) rhizomes JO - Eur. J. Biochem. PY - 2001 SP - 6263-6273 AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. AU - Hu, J. AU - Barre, A. AU - Hause, B. AU - Baggerman, G. AU - Rougé, P. AU - Peumans, W.J. VL - 268 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 223 TI - Contributions to betalain biochemistry. New structures, condensation reactions, and vacuolar transport JO - PhD Thesis. University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department Biochemistry/Biotechnology PY - 2001 SP - AU - Kobayashi, N. VL - 0 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 201 TI - Cloning and characterization of a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl) transferase induced in response to UV-C and wounding from Capsicum annuum JO - Plant Cell Physiol. PY - 2001 SP - 475481 AU - Back, K. AU - Jang, S.M. AU - Lee, B.-C. AU - Schmidt, A. AU - Strack, D. AU - Kim, K.-M. VL - 42 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 203 TI - Feedback regulation of glucose transporter gene transcription in Kluyveromyces lactis by glucose uptake JO - J. Bacteriol. PY - 2001 SP - 52235229 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Krampe, S. AU - Weirich, J. AU - Hasse, V. AU - Boles, E. AU - Breunig, K.D. VL - 183 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 459 TI - Iris bulbs express type 1 and type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins with unusual properties JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 2001 SP - 866-876 AU - Hao, Q. AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Barre, A. AU - Chen, Y. AU - Rougé, P. AU - Peumans, W.J. VL - 125 UR - AB - Two closely related lectins from bulbs of the Dutch iris (Iris hollandica var. Professor Blaauw) have been isolated and cloned. Both lectins, called Iris agglutinin b and Iris agglutinin r, possess N-glycosidase activity and share a high sequence similarity with previously described type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). However, these lectins show only 57 % to 59 % sequence identity to a previously characterized type 1 RIP from iris, called IRIP. The identification of the iris lectins as type 2 RIP provides unequivocal evidence for the simultaneous occurrence of type 1 and type 2 RIP in iris bulbs and allowed a detailed comparison of type 1 and type 2 RIP from a single plant, which provides further insight into the molecular evolution of RIP. Binding studies and docking experiments revealed that the lectins exhibit binding activity not only toward Gal/N-acetylgalactosamine, but also toward mannose, demonstrating for the first time that RIP-binding sites can accommodate mannose. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 213 TI - Betalains from Christmas cactus JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2000 SP - 419-426 AU - Kobayashi, N. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 54 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00129-1 AB - The presence of fourteen betalain pigments have been detected by their characteristic spectral properties in flower petals of Christmas cactus (Schlumbergerax buckleyi). Along with the known vulgaxanthin I, betalamic acid, betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), the structure of a new phyllocactin-derived betacyanin was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-(2'-O-b-D-apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside. Among the more complex betacyanins occurring in trace amounts, the presence of a new diacylated betacyanin {betanidin 5-O-[(5''-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-b-D-apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)]-b-D-glucopyra-noside} has been ascertained. Furthermore, the accumulation of betalains during flower development and their pattern in different organs of the flower has been examined. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology; Bioorganic Chemistry ER - TY - JOUR ID - 322 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce the non-mevalonate methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated with accumulation of the 'yellow pigment' and other apocarotenoids JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 571-578 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 21 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00708.x AB - Plants and certain bacteria use a non-mevalonate alternative route for the biosynthesis of many isoprenoids, including carotenoids. This route has been discovered only recently and has been designated the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway or methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. We report here that colonisation of roots from wheat, maize, rice and barley by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbiont Glomus intraradices involves strong induction of transcript levels of two of the pivotal enzymes of the MEP pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR). This induction is temporarily and spatially correlated with specific and concomitant accumulation of two classes of apocarotenoids, namely glycosylated C13 cyclohexenone derivatives and mycorradicin (C14) conjugates, the latter being a major component of the long-known 'yellow pigment'. A total of six cyclohexenone derivatives were characterised from mycorrhizal wheat and maize roots. Furthermore, the acyclic structure of mycorradicin described previously only from maize has been identified from mycorrhizal wheat roots after alkaline treatment of an 'apocarotenoid complex' of yellow root constituents. We propose a hypothetical scheme for biogenesis of both types of apocarotenoids from a common oxocarotenoid (xanthophyll) precursor. This is the first report demonstrating (i) that the plastidic MEP pathway is active in plant roots and (ii) that it can be induced by a fungus. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 321 TI - Secondary products in mycorrhizal roots of tobacco and tomato JO - Phytochemistry PY - 2000 SP - 473-479 AU - Maier, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 54 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942200000479 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00047-9 AB - Colonization of the roots of various tobacco species and cultivars (Nicotiana glauca Grah., N. longiflora Cav., N. rustica L., N. tabacum L., N. tabacum L. cv. Samsun NN, N. sanderae hort. Sander ex Wats.) as well as tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Moneymaker) by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith resulted in the accumulation of several glycosylated C13 cyclohexenone derivatives. Eight derivatives were isolated from the mycorrhizal roots by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectroscopically identified (MS and NMR) as mono-, di- and triglucosides of 6-(9-hydroxybutyl)-1,1,5-trimethyl-4-cyclohexen-3-one and monoglucosides of 6-(9-hydroxybutyl)-1,5-dimethyl-4-cyclohexen-3-one-1-carboxylic acid and 6-(9-hydroxybutyl)-1,1-dimethyl-4-cyclohexen-3-one-5-carboxylic acid. In contrast to the induced cyclohexenone derivatives, accumulation of the coumarins scopoletin and its glucoside (scopolin) in roots of N. glauca Grah. and N. tabacum L. cv. Samsun NN, was markedly suppressed. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 338 TI - Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) - tissue specific regulation in seedling development JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 199-213 AU - Maucher, H. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 21 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00669.x/full DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00669.x AB - Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full-length-cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1 the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 9.3. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co-purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX-derived 9- as well as 13-hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na-salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up-regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 97 TI - Molecular cloning of allene oxide cyclase: The enzyme establishing the stereochemistry of octadecanoids and jasmonates JO - J. Biol. Chem. PY - 2000 SP - 19132-19138 AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Hamberg, M. AU - Grimm, M. AU - Ganal, M. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 275 UR - http://www.jbc.org/content/275/25/19132.abstract?sid=04f09be3-5f6e-4d78-aa97-a7b681940e00 DO - doi:10.1074/jbc.M002133200 AB - Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) catalyses the stereospecific cyclisation of an unstable allene oxide to 9(S),13(S)-12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid, the ultimate precursor of jasmonic acid. This enzyme has previously been purified, and two identical N-terminal peptides were found suggesting AOC to be a homodimeric protein. Furthermore, the native protein was N-terminal processed. Using degenerate primers, a PCR fragment could be generated from tomato, which was further used to isolate a full length cDNA clone of 1kb coding for a protein with 245 amino acids with a molecular mass of 26 kDa. Whereas expression of the whole coding region failed to detect AOC activity, a 5-'truncated protein showed high activity, suggesting that additional amino acids impair the enzymatic function. Steric analysis of the 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid formed by the recombinant AOC revealed exclusive (>99%) formation of the 9(S),13(S) enantiomer. Exclusive formation of this enantiomer was also found in wounded tomato leaves. Southern analysis and genetic mapping revealed the existence of a single gene for AOC located on chromosome 2 of tomato. Inspection of the N-terminus revealed the presence of a chloroplastic transit peptide, and the location of AOC protein in that compartment could be shown by immunohistochemical methods. Concomitant with the jasmonate levels, the accumulation of AOC mRNA was transiently induced after wounding of tomato leaves. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 336 TI - Tissue-specific oxylipin signature of tomato flower - The allene oxide cyclase is highly expressed in distinct flower organs and vascular bundles JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 113-126 AU - Hause, B. AU - Stenzel, I. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Maucher, H. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 24 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00861.x/full DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00861.x AB - A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its correct stereoisomeric precursor, cis(+)12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA). This step is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC) which has been recently cloned from tomato (Ziegler et al., 2000). In stems, young leaves and young flowers AOC mRNA accumulates weakly, contrasting with a strong accumulation in flower buds, flower stalks and roots. The high levels of AOC mRNA and AOC protein in distinct flower organs correlate with high AOC activity, and with elevated levels of JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate. These compounds accumulate in flowers to levels of about 20 nmoles g-1 f.w., which is two orders of magnitude higher than in leaves. In pistils OPDA is much higher than JA, whereas in flower stalks JA exceeds the level of OPDA. Also in other flower tissues the ratios among JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate differ remarkably suggesting a tissue-specific oxylipin signature. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the specific occurrence of the AOC protein in ovules, the transmission tissue of the style and in vascular bundles of receptacles, flower stalks, stems, petioles and roots. Based on the tissue-specific AOC expression and formation of JA, OPDA and JA amino acid conjugates, a possible role for these compounds in flower development is discussed in terms of their effect on sink-source relationships and plant defense reactions. Furthermore, the AOC expression in vascular bundles might have a role in the systemin-mediated wound response of tomato. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 671 TI - Indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthusroseus: new enzyme activities and identification of cytochrome P450 CYP72A1as secologanin synthase JO - Plant J PY - 2000 SP - 797-804 AU - Irmler, S. AU - Schröder, G. AU - St-Pierre, B. AU - Crouch, N.P. AU - Hotze, M. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Matern, U. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 24 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2000.00922.x AB - The molecular characterization of CYP72A1 from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) was described nearly a decade ago, but the enzyme function remained unknown. We now show by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that the expression in immature leaves is epidermis-specific. It thus follows the pattern previously established for early enzymes in the pathway to indole alkaloids, suggesting that CYP72A1 may be involved in their biosynthesis. The early reactions in that pathway, i.e. from geraniol to strictosidine, contain several candidates for P450 activities. We investigated in this work two reactions, the conversion of 7-deoxyloganin to loganin (deoxyloganin 7-hydroxylase, DL7H) and the oxidative ring cleavage converting loganin into secologanin (secologanin synthase, SLS). The action of DL7H has not been demonstrated in vitro previously, and SLS has only recently been identified as P450 activity in one other plant. We show for the first time that both enzyme activities are present in microsomes from C. roseus cell cultures. We then tested whether CYP72A1 expressed in E. coli as a translational fusion with the C. roseus P450 reductase (P450Red) has one or both of these activities. The results show that CYP72A1 converts loganin into secologanin. A2 - C1 - Bioorganic Chemistry; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 235 TI - Glucosyltransferases in plant natural product synthesis: characterization of a supergene family JO - Trends Plant Sci PY - 2000 SP - 380-386 AU - Vogt, T. AU - Jones, P. VL - 5 UR - DO - 10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01720-9 AB - Glycosyltransferases of plant secondary metabolism transfer nucleotide diphosphate-activated sugars to low molecular weight substrates. Until recently, glucosyltransferases were thought to have only limited influence on the basic physiology of the plant. This view has changed. Glucosyltransferases might in fact have an important role in plant defense and stress tolerance. Results obtained with several recombinant enzymes corroborate that many glucosyltransferases are regioselective or regiospecific rather than highly substrate specific. This might indicate how plants evolve novel secondary products, placing enzymes with broad substrate specificities downstream of the conserved, early, pivotal enzymes of plant secondary metabolism. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 234 TI - Glucosyltransferases involved in plant natural product biosynthesis T2 - PB - in Recent advances in Phytochemistry, Pergamon Press PY - 2000 SP - AU - Vogt, T. VL - 34 UR - AB - A2 - Evolution of Metabolic Pathways, Romeo, T., Ibrahim, R., Varin, L., DeLuca, V. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 761 TI - The gene sll0273 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803 encodes a protein essential for growth at low Na+/K+ ratios JO - Plant Cell Environ PY - 2000 SP - 549-559 AU - Mikkat, S. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Hagemann, M. VL - 23 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 466 TI - The galactose-binding and mannose-binding jacalin-related lectins are located in different sub-cellular compartments JO - FEBS-Lett. PY - 2000 SP - 186-192 AU - Peumans, W.J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Van Damme, E.J.M. VL - 477 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 762 TI - Regulation of primary carbon metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JO - Enzyme Microb Tech PY - 2000 SP - 771-780 AU - Breunig, K.D. AU - Bolotin-Fukuhara, M. AU - Bianchi, M. AU - Bourgarel, D. AU - Falcone, C. AU - Ferrero, I. AU - Frontali, L. AU - Goffrini, P. AU - Krijger, J.J. AU - Mazzoni, C. AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Steensma, H.Y. AU - Wesolowski-Louvel, M. VL - 26 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 467 TI - Regulation and function of extracellular invertase from higher plants in relation to assimilate partitioning, stress responses and sugar signalling JO - Australian J. Plant Physiol. PY - 2000 SP - 815-825 AU - Roitsch, T. AU - Ehneß, R. AU - Goetz, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hofmann, M. AU - Sinha, A.K. VL - 27 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 582 TI - Piché Cyclohexenone derivatives- and phosphate-levels in split-root systems and their role in the systemic suppression of mycorrhization in precolonized barley plants JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 2000 SP - 593-599 AU - Vierheilig, H. AU - Maier, W. AU - Wyss, U. AU - Samson, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 157 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 461 TI - Nuclear g-Tubulin during Acentriolar Plant Mitosis JO - Plant Cell PY - 2000 SP - 433-442 AU - Binarová, P. AU - Cenklová, V. AU - Hause, B. AU - Kubátová, E. AU - Lysák, M. AU - Dolezel, J. AU - Bögre, L. AU - Dráber, P. VL - 12 UR - AB - Neither the molecular mechanism by which plant microtubules nucleate in the cytoplasm nor the organization of plant mitotic spindles, which lack centrosomes, is well understood. Here, using immunolocalization and cell fractionation techniques, we provide evidence that -tubulin , a universal component of microtubule organizing centers, is present in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of plant cells. The amount of -tubulin in nuclei increased during the G2 phase, when cells are synchronized or sorted for particular phases of the cell cycle. -Tubulin appeared on prekinetochores before preprophase arrest caused by inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase and before prekinetochore labeling of the mitosis-specific phosphoepitope MPM2. The association of nuclear -tubulin with chromatin displayed moderately strong affinity, as shown by its release after DNase treatment and by using extraction experiments. Subcellular compartmentalization of -tubulin might be an important factor in the organization of plant-specific microtubule arrays and acentriolar mitotic spindles. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 497 TI - Cell-cell contact between lymphocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes induces lymphocytic expression of aminopeptidase N/CD13 and results in lymphocytic activation JO - Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. PY - 2000 SP - 57-66 AU - Riemann, D. AU - Rontsch, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Langner, J. AU - Kehlen, A. VL - 477 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 583 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce the nonmevalonate methyl-erythritol-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated with accumulation of the yellow pigment and other apocarotenoids JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 571-578 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 21 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 498 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce the non-mevalonate methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated with accumulation of the 'yellow pigment' and other apocarotenoids JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 571-578 AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Fester, T. AU - Strack, D. VL - 21 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 199 TI - Cloning and heterologous expression of a rape cDNAencoding UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase JO - Planta PY - 2000 SP - 883886 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Strack, D. VL - 211 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 198 TI - Cloning of the SNG1 gene of Arabidopsis revealsa role for a serine carboxypeptidase-like protein as an acyltransferase in secondarymetabolism JO - Plant Cell PY - 2000 SP - 12951306 AU - Lehfeldt, C. AU - Amber, M.S. AU - Meyer, K. AU - Ruegger, M. AU - Cusumano, J.C. AU - Viitanen, P.V. AU - Strack, D. AU - Chapple, C. VL - 12 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 463 TI - Expression of cucumber lipid body lipoxygenase in transgenic tobacco: lipid body lipoxygenase is correctly targeted to seed lipid bodies JO - Planta PY - 2000 SP - 708-714 AU - Hause, B. AU - Weichert, H. AU - Höhne, M. AU - Kindl, H. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 210 UR - AB - A particular isoform of lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 1.13.11.12) localized on lipid bodies has been shown by earlier investigations to play a role during seed germination in initiating the mobilization of triacylglycerols. On lipid bodies of germinating cucumber seedlings, the modification of linoleoyl moieties by this LOX precedes the hydrolysis of the ester bonds. We analyzed the expression and intracellular location of this particular LOX form in leaves and seeds of tobacco transformed with one construct coding for cucumber lipid body LOX and one construct coding for cucumber LOX fused with a hemagglutinin epitope. In both tissues, the amount of lipid body LOX was clearly detectable. Biochemical analysis revealed that in mature seeds the foreign LOX was targeted to lipid bodies. By immunofluorescence microscopy, the preferred location of the LOX on lipid bodies was verified. Cells of the endosperm and of the embryo exhibited fluorescence based on the immunodecoration of LOX protein whereas very weak fluorescent label was visible in seeds of untransformed control pIants. Further cytochemical analysis of transformed plants showed that the LOX protein accumulated in the cytoplasm when green leaves lacking lipid bodies were analyzed. Increased LOX activity was shown in young leaves of transformed plants by an increase in endogenous amounts of (2E) -hexenal and jasmonic acid. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 581 TI - Accumulation of cyclohexenone derivatives in barley, wheat and maize roots in response to inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 2000 SP - 291-293 AU - Vierheilig, H. AU - Gagnon, H. AU - Strack, D. AU - Maier, W. VL - 9 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 499 TI - Jasmonate - chemische Signale in Pflanzen JO - Biologie in unserer Zeit PY - 2000 SP - 312-320 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Hause, B. VL - 30 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 197 TI - Indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthusroseus: new enzyme activities and identification of cytochrome P450 CYP72A1as secologanin synthase JO - Plant J. PY - 2000 SP - 797804 AU - Irmler, S. AU - Schröder, G. AU - St-Pierre, B. AU - Crouch, N.P. AU - Hotze, M. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Matern, U. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 24 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 464 TI - In situ localization of chitinase mRNA and protein in compatible and incompatible interactions of pepper stems with Phytophthora capsici JO - Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathology PY - 2000 SP - 111-121 AU - Lee, Y.-K. AU - Hippe-Sanwald, S. AU - Jung, H.W. AU - Hong, J.K. AU - Hause, B. AU - Hwang, B.K. VL - 57 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 200 TI - Identification of four Arabidopsis genesencoding hydroxycinnamate glucosyltransferases JO - FEBS Lett. PY - 2000 SP - 183184 AU - Milkowski, C. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Strack, D. VL - 486 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 306 TI - Cloning and expression of a potato cDNA encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl- transferase JO - J Biol Chem PY - 1999 SP - 4273-4280 AU - Schmidt, A. AU - Grimm, R. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. AU - Rosahl, S. VL - 274 UR - http://www.jbc.org/content/by/year DO - 10.1074/jbc.274.7.4273 AB - Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase (THT; EC 2.3.1.110) catalyzes the transfer of hydroxycinnamic acids from the respective CoA esters to tyramine and other amines in the formation of N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)amines. Expression of THT is induced by Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of late blight disease in potato. The amino acid sequences of nine endopeptidase LysC-liberated peptides from purified potato THT were determined. Using degenerate primers, a THT-specific fragment was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and THT cDNA clones were isolated from a library constructed from RNA of elicitor-treated potato cells. The open reading frame encoding a protein of 248 amino acids was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant THT exhibited a broad substrate specificity, similar to that of native potato THT, accepting cinnamoyl-, 4-coumaroyl-, caffeoyl-, feruloyl- and sinapoyl-CoA as acyl donors and tyramine, octopamine, and noradrenalin as acceptors tested. Elicitor-induced THT transcript accumulation in cultured potato cells peaked 5 h after initiation of treatment, whereas enzyme activity was highest from 5 to 30 h after elicitation. In soil-grown potato plants, THT mRNA was most abundant in roots. Genomic Southern analyses indicate that, in potato, THT is encoded by a multigene family. A2 - C1 - Stress and Developmental Biology; Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 236 TI - Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase, a betanidin and flavonoid specific enzyme with high homology to inducible glucosyltransferases from the Solanaceae JO - Plant J. PY - 1999 SP - 509-519 AU - Vogt, T. AU - Grimm, R. AU - Strack, D. VL - 19 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00540.x AB - Based on protein sequence data and RT-PCR, a full length cDNA encoding betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5-GT) was obtained from a cDNA library of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis (Burm.f.) N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae). 5-GT catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to the 5-hydroxyl group of the chromogenic betanidin. Betanidin and its conjugates, referred to as betacyanins, are characteristic fruit and flower pigments in most members of the Caryophyllales, which fail to synthesize anthocyanins. The 5-GT cDNA displayed homology to previously published glucosyltransferase sequences and exhibited high identity to sequences of several inducible glucosyltransferases of tobacco and tomato (Solanaceae). The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 489 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.24 kDa. The corresponding cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein displayed identical substrate specificity compared to the native enzyme purified from D. bellidiformis cell suspension cultures. In addition to the natural substrate betanidin, ortho-dihydroxylated flavonols and flavones were glycosylated preferentially at the B-ring 4'-hydroxyl group. 5-GT is the first enzyme of betalain biosynthesis in plants, of which the corresponding cDNA has been cloned and expressed. The results are discussed in relation to molecular evolution of plant glucosyltransferases. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 323 TI - Accumulation of secondary compounds in barley and wheat roots in response to inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and co-inoculation with rhizosphere bacteria JO - Mycorrhiza PY - 1999 SP - 241-246 AU - Fester, T. AU - Maier, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 8 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/572 DO - 10.1007/s005720050240 AB - Colonization of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome (barley) and Triticum aestivum L. cv. Caprimus (wheat) roots by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith leads to de novo synthesis of isoprenoid cyclohexenone derivatives with blumenin [9-O-(2'-O-b-glucuronosyl)-b-glucopyranoside of 6-(3-hydroxybutyl)-1,1,5-trimethyl-4- cyclohexen-3-one] as the major constituent and to transient accumulation of hydroxycinnamate amides (4-coumaroylagmatine and -putrescine). Accumulation of these compounds in mycorrhizal wheat roots started 2 weeks after sowing together with the onset of arbuscule formation and proceeded with mycorrhizal progression. Highest levels were reached in 3- to 4-week-old secondary roots (foot branches of first and higher order) characterized by the formation of vesicles. In the final developmental stages, the fungus produced massive amounts of spores, enclosing the stele of older root parts (older than 5 weeks) characterized by cortical death. In these root parts, the secondary compounds were detected in trace amounts only, indicating that they were located in the cortical tissues. Some rhizosphere bacteria tested, i.e. Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium leguminosarum, markedly stimulated both fungal root colonization and blumenin accumulation, thus, acting as mycorrhiza-helper bacteria (MHB). Application of blumenin itself strongly inhibited fungal colonization and arbuscule formation at early stages of mycorrhiza development. This was associated with a markedly reduced accumulation of the hydroxycinnamate amides 4-coumaroylputrescine and -agmatine. The results suggest that both the isoprenoid and the phenylpropanoid metabolism are closely linked to the developmental stage and the extent of fungal colonization. Their possible involvement in the regulation of mycorrhiza development is discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 237 TI - Light-induced betacyanin and flavonol accumulation in bladder cells of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1999 SP - 583-592 AU - Vogt, T. AU - Ibdah, M. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 52 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003194229900151X DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00151-X AB - Treatment of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (ice plant) (Aizoaceae) with high intensities of white light resulted in a rapid cell-specific accumulation of betacyanins and flavonoids with 6-methoxyisorhamnetin 3-O-{-[(2```-E-feruloyl)-3´´´-O-(ß-D- glucopyranosyl)] (2´´-ß-D-xylopyranosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (mesembryanthin) as the predominant component, within bladder cells of the leaf epidermis. Induced accumulation of these metabolites was first detected 18 h after the initiation of light treatment in bladder cells located at the tip of young leaves followed by the bladder cells located on the epidermis of fully expanded leaves. UV-A light apparently is sufficient to induce accumulation of betacyanins and flavonoids. Application of 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid, a specific inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5), not only inhibited the accumulation of flavonoids but also reduced betacyanin formation. Based on these observations we suggest these bladder cells as a model system to study regulation of betacyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 215 TI - Tyrosinase involved in betalain biosynthesis of higher plants JO - Planta PY - 1999 SP - 114-124 AU - Steiner, U. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Böhm, H. AU - Strack, D. VL - 208 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s004250050541 DO - 10.1007/s004250050541 AB - A tyrosine-hydroxylating enzyme was partially purified from betacyanin-producing callus cultures of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. by using hydroxyapatite chromatography and gel filtration. It was characterized as a tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1 and EC 1.10.3.1) by inhibition experiments with copper-chelating agents and detection of concomitant o-diphenol oxidase activity. The tyrosinase catalysed both the formation of Dopa and cyclo-Dopa which are the pivotal precursors in betalain biosynthesis. The hydroxylating activity with a pH optimum of 5.7 was specific for L-tyrosine and exhibited reaction velocities with L-tyrosine and D-tyrosine in a ratio of 1:0.2. Other monophenolic substrates tested were not accepted. The enzyme appeared to be a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of ca. 53 kDa as estimated by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Some other betalain-producing plants and cell cultures were screened for tyrosinase activity; however, activities could only be detected in red callus cultures and plants of P. grandiflora as well as in plants, hairy roots and cell cultures of Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris (Garden Beet Group), showing a clear correlation between enzyme activity and betacyanin content in young B. vulgaris plants. We propose that this tyrosinase is specifically involved in the betalain biosynthesis of higher plants. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 470 TI - Cultivar-specific expression of the jasmonate-induced protein of 23 kDa (JIP-23) occurs in Hordeum vulgare L. upon stress treatment but not during seed germination JO - Plant Biol. PY - 1999 SP - 83-89 AU - Hause, B. AU - Hertel, S.C. AU - Klaus, D. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 1 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1438-8677 DO - 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1999.tb00712.x AB - Treatment of barley leaf segments with jasmonic acid methyl ester (JM) leads to the accumulation of a set of newly formed abundant proteins. Among them the most abundant protein exhibits a molecular mass of 23° kDa (JIP-23). Here, data are presented on the occurrence and expression of the JIP-23 genes in different cultivars of Hordeum vulgare. Southern blot analysis of 80° cultivars revealed the occurrence of 2 to 4° genes coding for JIP-23 in all cultivars. By means of Northern blot and immuno blot analysis it is shown that some cultivars lack the expression of jip-23 upon treatment of primary leaves with JM as well as upon stress performed by incubation with 1 M sorbitol solution. During germination, however, all tested cultivars exhibited developmental expression of jip-23. The results are discussed in terms of possible functions of JIP-23 in barley. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 580 TI - Monitoring brassinosteroid biosynthetic enzymes by fluorescence tagging and HPLC analysis JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1999 SP - 237-242 AU - Winter, J. AU - Schneider, B. AU - Meyenburg, S. AU - Strack, D. AU - Adam, G. VL - 51 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 574 TI - Light-induced cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme in indole alkaloid biosynthesis: Tabersonine 16-hydroxylase JO - FEBS Lett. PY - 1999 SP - 97-102 AU - Schröder, G. AU - Unterbusch, E. AU - Kaltenbach, M. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - De Luca, V. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 458 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 216 TI - Tyrosinase in der pflanzlichen Betalain-Biosynthese JO - Dissertation, MLU Halle PY - 1999 SP - AU - Steiner, U. VL - 0 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 575 TI - The endophyte-host interaction: a balanced antagonism? JO - Mycological Research PY - 1999 SP - 1275-1283 AU - Schulz, B. AU - Römmert, A.-K. AU - Dammann, U. AU - Aust, H.-J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 103 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 572 TI - The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1999 SP - 1217-1232 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Kobayashi, N. AU - Strack, D. VL - 119 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 571 TI - The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, induces the accumulation of cyclohexenone derivatives in tobacco roots JO - Planta PY - 1999 SP - 620-623 AU - Maier, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Strack, D. VL - 207 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 525 TI - The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction JO - Plant Physiol PY - 1999 SP - 1217-1232 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Kobayashi, N. AU - Strack, D. VL - 119 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 324 TI - The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, induces the accumulation of cyclohexenone derivatives in tobacco roots JO - Planta PY - 1999 SP - 620-623 AU - Maier, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Walter, M.H. AU - Strack, D. VL - 207 UR - AB - Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were grown with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. High performance liquid chromatographic analyses of methanolic extracts from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tobacco roots revealed marked fungus-induced changes in the patterns of UV-detectable products. The UV spectra of these products, obtained from an HPLC photodiode array detector, indicated the presence of several blumenol derivatives. The most predominant compound among these derivatives was spectroscopically identified as 13-hydroxyblumenol C 9-O-bgentiobioside (''nicoblumin''), i.e. the 9-O-(6'-O-b-glucopyranosyl)-b-glucopyranoside of 13-hydroxy-6-(3-hydroxybutyl)-1,1,5-trimethyl-4-cyclohexen-3-one, a new natural product. This is the first report on the identification of blumenol derivatives in mycorrhizal roots of a nongramineous plant. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 214 TI - The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1999 SP - 1217-1232 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Kobayashi, N. AU - Strack, D. VL - 119 UR - AB - Experiments were performed to confirm that the aldimine bond formation is a spontaneous reaction, because attempts to find an enzyme catalyzing the last decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis, the aldimine formation, failed. Feeding different amino acids to betalain-forming hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris "Golden Beet") showed that all amino acids (S- and R-forms) led to the corresponding betaxanthins. We observed neither an amino acid specificity nor a stereoselectivity in this process. In addition, increasing the endogenous phenylalanine (Phe) level by feeding the Phe ammonia-lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid yielded the Phe-derived betaxanthin. Feeding amino acids or 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid to hypocotyls of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris "Altamo") plants led to the same results. Furthermore, feeding cyclo-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-alanine (cyclo-Dopa) to these hypocotyls resulted in betanidin formation, indicating that the decisive step in betacyanin formation proceeds spontaneously. Finally, feeding betalamic acid to broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings, which are known to accumulate high levels of Dopa but do not synthesize betaxanthins, resulted in the formation of dopaxanthin. These results indicate that the condensation of betalamic acid with amino acids (possibly including cyclo-Dopa or amines) in planta is a spontaneous, not an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 579 TI - Phenylpropanoids in mycorrhizas of the Pinaceae JO - Planta PY - 1999 SP - 491-502 AU - Weiss, M. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Neumann, D. AU - Wray, V. AU - Christ, R. AU - Strack, D. VL - 208 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 570 TI - Accumulation of phthalides in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of Petroselinum crispum JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1999 SP - 629-635 AU - Hagemeier, J. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Hahlbrock, K. AU - Strack, D. VL - 51 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 469 TI - A jasmonate-responsive lipoxygenase of barley leaves is induced by plant activators but not by pathogens JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 1999 SP - 459-462 AU - Hause, B. AU - Vörös, K. AU - Kogel, K.-H. AU - Besser, K. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 154 UR - AB - Using the recently isolated cDNA clone LOX2:Hv:1 which codes for the most abundant jasmonate-inducible lipoxygenase (LOX) in barley leaves (Vörös et al., 1998), we analysed the capability of different activators of systemic activated resistance (SAR) to induce the expression of that LOX. Upon treatment of barley leaves with salicylate, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, all these compounds were able to induce the expression of the LOX2:Hv:1 gene, whereas upon infection with the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.°sp. hordei) mRNA accumulation was not detectable in compatible or in incompatible interactions. The induction of the LOX2:Hv:1 protein by SAR activators and the expression of different sets of genes induced by jasmonate and salicylate, respectively, are discussed in relation to defense responses against pathogenic fungi. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 496 TI - Jasmonate-induced gene expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves - the link between jasmonate and abscisic acid JO - Plant Growth Regul. PY - 1999 SP - 113-122 AU - Ortel, B. AU - Atzorn, R. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 29 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 494 TI - Cloning and expression of a new cDNA from monocotyledonous plants coding for a diadenosine 5,5'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) JO - FEBS Lett. PY - 1998 SP - 481-485 AU - Churin, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Maucher, H.P. AU - Feussner, K. AU - Börner, T. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 431 UR - http://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1873-3468/issues/ DO - 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00819-9 AB - From a cDNA library generated from mRNA of white leaf tissues of the ribosome-deficient mutant ‘albostrians' of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Haisa) a cDNA was isolated carrying 54.2% identity to a recently published cDNA which codes for the diadenosine-5′,5′′′-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase of Lupinus angustifolius (Maksel et al. (1998) Biochem. J. 329, 313–319), and 69% identity to four partial peptide sequences of Ap4A hydrolase of tomato. Overexpression in Escherichia coli revealed a protein of about 19 kDa, which exhibited Ap4A hydrolase activity and cross-reactivity with an antibody raised against a purified tomato Ap4A hydrolase (Feussner et al. (1996) Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 477–486). Expression studies showed an mRNA accumulation in all organs of a barley seedling. Possible functions of Ap4A hydrolase in plants will be discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 218 TI - Betanidin formation from dihydroxyphenyl- alanine in a model assay system JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 1593-1598 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Steiner, U. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00276-3 AB - Formation of betanidin, the aglycone of the red-violet betacyanins, has been demonstrated by a two-step model assay system. In the first step dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) was incubated with a Dopa dioxygenase preparation from Amanita muscaria, resulting in the formation of 4,5-seco-Dopa that spontaneously recyclized to betalamic acid. In the second step a tyrosinase preparation from Portulaca grandiflora was added to the Dopa dioxygenase assay, resulting in Dopa oxidation followed by a spontaneous formation of cyclo-Dopa that in turn reacted spontaneously with betalamic acid to form betanidin. Thus, two enzymatic reactions, Dopa extradiol ring cleavage by the fungal enzyme and Dopa oxidation by the plant enzyme, initiate three spontaneous steps: the formation of cyclo-Dopa and betalamic acid and finally the condensation of these compounds to betanidin. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 471 TI - Association of g-tubulin with kinetochore/ centromeric region of plant chromosomes JO - Plant J. PY - 1998 SP - 751-757 AU - Binarová, P. AU - Hause, B. AU - Dolezel, J. AU - Dráber, P. VL - 14 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1998.00166.x AB - Monoclonal antibodies raised against a phylogenetically conserved peptide from the C-terminal domain of g-tubulin molecule were used for immunofluorescence detection of g-tubulin in acentriolar mitotic spindles of plant cells. The antibodies stained kinetochore fibres along their whole length, including the close vicinity of kinetochores. After microtubule disassembly by the anti-microtubular drugs aminoprophos-methyl (APM), oryzalin, and colchicine, g -tubulin was found on remnants of kinetochore fibres attached to chromosomes. In cells recovering from the amiprophosmethyl treatment, g-tubulin was localized with the re-growing kinetochore microtubule fibres nucleated or captured by kinetochore/centromeric regions. On isolated chromosomes, g-tubulin co-localized with g-tubulin in the kinetochore/centromeric region. The presented data suggest that in acentriolar higher plant cells g -tubulin might be directly or indirectly involved in modulation and/or stabilization of kinetochore-microtubule interactions. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 408 TI - Alteration of V-type H+-ATPase during methyljasmonate-induced senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome) JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 1998 SP - 199-206 AU - Ratajczak, R. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Böhm, A. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 152 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0176161798801338 DO - 10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80133-8 AB - In barley leaves, the application of (−)-jasmonic acid or its methyl ester (JAME) induces a senescencelike phenotype. This is accompanied by the synthesis of abundant proteins, so-called jasmonate-induced proteins (JlPs). Here, we show that modifications of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits are jasmo-nate inducible. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate that V-ATPase of barley leaves is exclusively located at the tonoplast also upon JAME treatment. Total ATP-hydrolysis activity of microsomal fractions increased by a factor of 10 during 72 h of JAME-treatment, while Bafilomycin Ai-sensitive ATP-hydrolysis activity, which is usually referred to V-ATPase activity, increased by a factor of about 2 in tono-plast-enriched membrane fractions. Moreover, due to JAME treatment there was a pronounced increase in ATP-hydrolysis activity at pH 6.2. This activity was not affected by inhibitors of P-, F-, or V-ATPases. However, biochemical analysis of partially purified V-ATPase suggests, that this activity might be due at least in part to the V-ATPase. JAME-treatment seems to change biochemical properties of the V-ATPase, i.e. a shift of the pH optimum of activity to a more acidic pH and a decrease in Bafilomycin A1 sensitivity. This is accompanied by the appearance of several additional forms of V-ATPase subunits which might represent either different isoforms or post-translationally modified proteins. We suggest that these changes in properties of the V-ATPase, which is involved in house-keeping and stress responses, may be due to JAME-induced senescence to overcome concomitant changes of the vacuolar membrane. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 492 TI - Jasmonic acid: biosynthesis, signal transduction, gene expression JO - Fett / Lipid PY - 1998 SP - 139-146 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Hause, B. AU - Ward, J. AU - Beale, M. AU - Boland, W. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Feussner, I. VL - 100 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1438-9312 DO - 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(19985)100:4/5<139::AID-LIPI139>3.0.CO;2-5 AB - Jasmonic acid (JA) is an ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulator which functions as a signal of developmentally or environmentally regulated expression of various genes thereby contributing to the defense status of plants [1–5]. The formation of jasmonates in a lipid-based signalling pathway via octadecanoids seems to be a common principle for many plant species to express wound- and stressinduced genes [4, 5].There are various octadecanoid-derived signals [3]. Among them, jasmonic acid and its amino acid conjugates are most active in barley, supporting arguments that β-oxidation is an essential step in lipid-based JA mediated responses. Furthermore, among derivatives of 12-oxophytodienoic acid (PDA) carrying varying length of the carboxylic acid side-chain, only those with a straight number of carbon atoms are able to induce JA responsive genes in barley leaves after treatment with these compounds. Barley leaves stressed by treatment with sorbitol solutions exhibit mainly an endogenous rise of JA and JA amino acid conjugates suggesting that both of them are stress signals. Data on organ- and tissue-specific JA-responsive gene expression will be presented and discussed in terms of “JA as a master switch” among various lipid-derived signals. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 217 TI - Intramolecular stabilization of acylated betacyanins JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 585-588 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00047-8 AB - Racemization and stability of the betacyanins, betanin (betanidin 5-O-glucoside) and amaranthin (betanidin 5-O-glucuronosylglucoside), under acidic conditions were compared with those of the corresponding feruloyl derivatives, lampranthin II and celosianin II. Both acylbetacyanins showed a reduced racemization velocity and celosianin II in addition an enhanced stability, possibly caused by intramolecular association between the betanidin and the feruloyl moieties. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 493 TI - Diversity in octadecanoid-induced gene expression of tomato JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 1998 SP - 345-352 AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Ortel, B. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Kramell, R. AU - Beale, M. AU - Greulich, F. AU - Feussner, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Krumm, T. AU - Boland, W. AU - Parthier, B. VL - 152 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01761617 DO - 10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80149-1 AB - In tomato plants wounding leads to up-regulation of various plant defense genes via jasmonates (Ryan, 1992, ; Bergey et al., 1996). Using this model system of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling, we analyzed activity of octadecanoids to express JA-responsive genes. Leaf treatments were performed with naturally occurring octadecanoids and their molecular mimics such as coronatine or indanone conjugates. JA responses were recorded in terms of up- or down-regulation of various genes by analyzing transcript accumulation, and at least partially in vitro translation products and polypeptide pattern of leaf extracts. The data suggest: (i) 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid and other intermediates of the octadecanoid pathway has to be ß-oxidized to give a JA response, (ii) Octadecanoids which can not be ß-oxidized are inactive, (iii) JA, its methyl ester (JM), and its amino acid conjugates are most active signals in tomato leaves leading to up regulation of mainly wound-inducible genes and down-regulation of mainly genes, (iv) Some compounds carrying a JA/JM- or JA amino acid conjugate-like structure induce/repress only a subset of genes suggesting diversity of JA signalling. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 569 TI - Plant polyketide synthases: A chalcone synthase-type enzyme which performs a condensation reaction with methyl-malonyl-CoA in the biosynthesis of C-methylated chalcones JO - Biochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 8417-8425 AU - Schröder, J. AU - Raiber, S. AU - Berger, T. AU - Schmidt, A. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Soares-Sello, A.M. AU - Bardshiri, E. AU - Strack, D. AU - Simpson, T.J. AU - Veit, M. AU - Schröder, G. VL - 37 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 565 TI - New pathway to polyketides in plants JO - Nature PY - 1998 SP - 387-390 AU - Eckermann, S. AU - Schröder, G. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. AU - Edrada, R.A. AU - Helariutta, Y. AU - Elomaa, P. AU - Kotilainen, M. AU - Kilpeläinen, I. AU - Proksch, P. AU - Teeri, T.H. AU - Schröder, J. VL - 396 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 325 TI - Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid cyclohexenone derivatives in mycorrhizal barley roots proceeds via the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate pathway JO - Tetrahedron Lett. PY - 1998 SP - 521-524 AU - Maier, W. AU - Schneider, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 39 UR - AB - Incorporation of [1-13C]- and [U-13C6]glucose indicates that the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid cyclohexenone derivatives in mycorrhizal barley roots proceeds via the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate non-mevalonate pathway. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 566 TI - Betanidin formation from dihydroxyphenylalanine in a model assay system JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 1593-1598 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Steiner, U. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 523 TI - Betanidin formation from dihydroxyphenylalanine in a model assay system JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 1593-1598 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Steiner, U. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 568 TI - Elicitor-stimulated biosynthesis of hydroxycin-namoyltyramines in cell suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum JO - Planta PY - 1998 SP - 51-55 AU - Schmidt, A. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. VL - 205 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 567 TI - Intramolecular stabilization of acylated betacyanins JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 585-588 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 524 TI - Intramolecular stabilization of acylated betacyanins JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1998 SP - 585-588 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 49 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 238 TI - Are the characteristics of betanidin glucosyltransferases from cell suspension cultures of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis indicative of their phylogenetic relationship with flavonoid glucosyltransferases? JO - Planta PY - 1997 SP - 349-361 AU - Vogt, T. AU - Zimmermann, E. AU - Grimm, R. AU - Meyer, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 203 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/425 DO - 10.1007/s004250050201 AB - Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose:betanidin 5-O- and 6-O-glucosyltransferases (5-GT and 6-GT; EC 2.4.1) catalyze the regiospecific formation of betanin (betanidin 5-O-ß-glucoside) and gomphrenin I (betanidin 6-O-ß-glucoside), respectively. Both enzymes were purified to near homogeneity from cell-suspension cultures of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis, the 5-GT by classical chromatographic techniques and the 6-GT by affinity dye-ligand chromatography using UDP-glucose as eluent. Data obtained with highly purified enzymes indicate that 5-GT and 6-GT catalyze the indiscriminate transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to hydroxyl groups of betanidin, flavonols, anthocyanidins and flavones, but discriminate between individual hydroxyl groups of the respective acceptor compounds. The 5-GT catalyzes the transfer of glucose to the C-4' hydroxyl group of quercetin as its best substrate, and the 6-GT to the C-3 hydroxyl group of cyanidin as its best substrate. Both enzymes also catalyze the formation of the respective 7-O-glucosides, but to a minor extent. Although the enzymes were not isolated to homogeneity, chromatographic, electrophoretic and kinetic properties proved that the respective enzyme activities were based on the presence of single enzymes, i.e. 5-GT and 6-GT. The N terminus of the 6-GT revealed high sequence identity to a proposed UDP-glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) of Manihot esculenta. In addition to the 5-GT and 6-GT, we isolated a UF3GT from D. bellidiformis cell cultures that preferentially accepted myricetin and quercetin, but was inactive with betanidin. The same result was obtained with a UF3GT from Antirrhinum majus and a flavonol 4'-O-glucosyltransferase from Allium cepa. Based on these results, the main question to be addressed reads: Are the characteristics of the 5-GT and 6-GT indicative of their phylogenetic relationship with flavonoid glucosyltransferases? A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 398 TI - Amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid induce jasmonate-responsive gene expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves JO - FEBS Lett PY - 1997 SP - 197-202 AU - Kramell, R. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Hause, B. AU - Ortel, B. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 414 UR - http://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1873-3468/issues/ DO - 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01005-3 AB - Leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome) treated with jasmonic acid (JA), its methyl ester (JM), or its amino acid conjugates exhibit up-regulation of specific genes and down-regulation of house-keeping genes. This transcriptional regulation exhibits several specificities. (i) The (−)-enantiomers are more active, and conjugates are mainly active if they carry an l-amino acid moiety. (ii) The various JA-responsive genes respond differentially to enantiomeric and chiralic forms. (iii) Both JA and its amino acid conjugates exhibiting no or negligible interconversion induce/repress genes. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 522 TI - Concentration of dilute protein solutions prior to sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis JO - Anal. Biochem PY - 1997 SP - 257-260 AU - Ziegler, J. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Miersch, O. AU - Strack, D. VL - 250 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000326979792248X DO - doi:10.1006/abio.1997.2248 AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 388 TI - Induction of a new lipoxygenase form in cucumber leaves by salicylic acid or 2.6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid JO - Bot. Acta PY - 1997 SP - 101-108 AU - Feussner, I. AU - Fritz, G. AU - Hause, B. AU - Ullrich, W.R. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 110 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1438-8677/issues DO - 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00616.x AB - Changes in lipoxygenase (LOX) protein pattern and/or activity were investigated in relation to acquired resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves against two powdery mildews, Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht) Salmon and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC et Merat. Acquired resistance was established by spraying leaves with salicylic acid (SA) or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and estimated in whole plants by infested leaf area compared to control plants. SA was more effective than INA. According to Western blots, untreated cucumber leaves contained a 97 kDa LOX form, which remained unchanged for up to 48 h after pathogen inoculation. Upon treatment with SA alone for 24 h or with INA plus pathogen, an additional 95 kDa LOX form appeared which had an isoelectric point in the alkaline range. For the induction of this form, a threshold concentration of 1 mM SA was required, higher SA concentrations did not change LOX-95 expression which remained similar between 24 h and 96 h but further increased upon mildew inoculation. Phloem exudates contained only the LOX-97 form, in intercellular washing fluid no LOX was detected. dichloroisonicotinic localization revealed LOX protein in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells without differences between the forms. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 394 TI - Nuclear location of a diadenosine 5,5'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase in tomato cells grown in suspension cultures JO - Bot. Acta PY - 1997 SP - 452-457 AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, K. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 110 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1438-8677 DO - 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00662.x AB - Diadenosine 5′,5′”-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) cleaving enzymes are assumed to regulate intracellular levels of Ap4A, a compound known to affect cell proliferation and stress responses. From plants an Ap4A hydrolase was recently purified using tomato cells grown in suspension. It was partially sequenced and a peptide antibody was prepared (Feussner et al., 1996). Using this polyclonal monospecific antibody, an abundant nuclear location of Ap4A hydrolase in 4-day-old cells of atomato cell suspension culture is demonstrated here by means of immunocytochemical techniques using FITC (fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate) labeled secondary antibodies. The microscopic analysis of the occurrence of Ap4A hydrolase performed for different stages of the cell cycle visualized by parallel DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that the protein accumulates within nuclei of cells in the interphase, but is absent in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm during all stages of mitosis. This first intracellular localization of an Ap4A degrading enzyme within the nucleus and its pattern of appearance during the cell cycle is discussed in relation to the suggested role of Ap4A in triggering DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 519 TI - Methyl jasmonate induces O-methyltransferase in barley JO - Plant Cell Physiol. PY - 1997 SP - 851-862 AU - Lee, J. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Hause, B. AU - Löbler, M. VL - 38 UR - http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/7/851.full.pdf+html AB - We have previously described a truncated cDNA clone for a barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome) jasmonate regulated gene, JRG5, which shows homology to caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). A cDNA encompassing the coding region was amplified by PCR and cloned for overexpression in E. coli. Western blot analyses indicate that the recombinant protein crossreacts with the antibodies directed against the tobacco class II OMT and only weakly with the antibodies for the tobacco class I OMT. An immunoreactive band in the protein extract of jasmo-nate-treated leaf segments suggests that JRG5 transcripts that accumulate after jasmonate treatment are also translated. Specific methylating activities on caffeic acid and catechol were obtained from the recombinant protein through renaturation of protein extracted from inclusion bodies or from bacteria grown and induced at low temperature. On Northern blots, the JRG5 transcripts were detected in the leaf sheath but not the leaf lamina, stem, root or inflorescence and accumulated in leaf segments after jasmonate application. Several hormone or stress treatments did not induce JRG5 mRNA accumulation. This includes sor-bitol stress which is known to lead to enhanced endogenous jasmonate levels and the implications for jasmonate signaling are discussed. Based on quantitative measurements and fluorescence microscopy, jasmonate-induced accumulation of ferulic acid and phenolic polymers in the cell wall were detected and the possibility of cell wall strengthening mediated through phenolic crosslinks is discussed A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 520 TI - Methyl jasmonate-induced accumulation of coumaroyl conjugates in barley leaf segments JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1997 SP - 589-592 AU - Lee, J. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Löbler, M. VL - 44 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - CHAP ID - 219 TI - Farbstoffe T2 - PB - In: Römpp-Lexikon Naturstoffe, Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York PY - 1997 SP - AU - Strack, D. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 0 UR - AB - A2 - Fugmann, B., Lang-Fugmann, S., Steglich, W. C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 560 TI - Triterpenoids from Pisolithus tinctorius isolates and ectomycorrhizas JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1997 SP - 499-504 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Schumann, B. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Strack, D. VL - 45 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 562 TI - Tissue-specific and development-dependent accumulation of phenylpropanoids in larch mycorrhizas JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1997 SP - 15-27 AU - Weiss, M. AU - Mikolajewski, S. AU - Peipp, H. AU - Schmitt, U. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 114 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 489 TI - Nuclear location of a diadenosine 5,5'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase in tomato cells grown in suspension cultures JO - Bot. Acta PY - 1997 SP - 452-457 AU - Hause, B. AU - Feussner, K. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 110 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 327 TI - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-induced changes in the accumulation of secondary compounds in barley roots JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1997 SP - 581-587 AU - Peipp, H. AU - Maier, W. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 44 UR - AB - Hordeum vulgare (barley) was grown in a defined nutritional medium with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. HPLC of methanolic extracts from the roots of mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants revealed fungus-induced accumulation of some secondary metabolites. These compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) to be the hydroxycinnamic acid amides N-(E)-4-coumaroylputrescine, N-(E)-feruloylputrescine, N-(E)-4-coumaroylagmatine and N-(E)-feruloylagmatine, exhibiting a transient accumulation, and the cyclohexenone derivative 4-(3-O-b-glucopyranosylbutyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 4-{3-O-[2'-O-b-glucuronosyl)-b-glucopyranosyl]-butyl}-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (blumenin), exhibiting a continuous accumulation. A third cyclohexenone derivative, 4-{3-O-[(2'-O-b-glucuronosyl)-b-glucopyranosyl]-1-butenyl}-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one, was detectable only in minute amounts. It is suggested that accumulation of the amides in early developmental stages of barley mycorrhization reflects initiation of a defense response. However, the continuous accumulation of the cyclohexenone derivatives, especially blumenin, seems to correlate with the establishment of a functional barley mycorrhiza. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 487 TI - Expression of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60 from barley in transgenic tobacco leads to an abnormal phenotype and alterations on the level of translation JO - Planta PY - 1997 SP - 470-478 AU - Görschen, E. AU - Dunaeva, M. AU - Hause, B. AU - Reeh, I. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Parthier, B. VL - 202 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 326 TI - Accumulation of sesquiterpenoid cyclohexenone derivatives induced by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in members of the Poaceae JO - Planta PY - 1997 SP - 36-42 AU - Maier, W. AU - Hammer, K. AU - Dammann, U. AU - Schulz, B. AU - Strack, D. VL - 202 UR - AB - Sixty one members of the Poaceae, including various cereals, were grown in defined nutrient media with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. The roots of all species investigated were colonized by the AM fungus, however, to different degrees and independent of their systematic position, High-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of methanolic extracts from the roots of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal species revealed dramatic changes in the patterns of UV-detectable products along with a widespread occurrence of AM-fungus-induced accumulation of sesquiterpenoid cyclohexenone derivatives. The latter occur most often in the tribes Poeae, Triticeae and Aveneae. Some additional control experiments on plant infection with pathogens (Gaeumannomyces graminis) and (Drechslera sp.) or an endophyte (Fusarium sp.), as well as application of abiotic stress, proved that the metabolism of these terpenoids is part of a response pattern of many gramineous roots in their specific reaction to AM fungal colonization. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 563 TI - Involvement of a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase in the hydroxylation of 24-epi-brassinolide in tomato cell cultures JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1997 SP - 233-237 AU - Winter, J. AU - Schneider, B. AU - Strack, D. AU - Adam, G. VL - 45 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 486 TI - Induction of a new lipoxygenase form in cucumber leaves by salicylic acid or 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid JO - Bot. Acta PY - 1997 SP - 101-108 AU - Feussner, I. AU - Fritz, I.G. AU - Hause, B. AU - Ullrich, W.R. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 110 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 472 TI - In barley leaf cells, jasmonate do not act as a signal during compatible or incompatible interactions with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 1997 SP - 127-232 AU - Hause, B. AU - Kogel, K.-H. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 150 UR - AB - We have studied a possible function of jasmonates as a mediator in the host-pathogen interaction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, Egh). An immunocytological analysis of leaf cross sections from a susceptible barley cultivar and its near-isogenic mlo5 -resistant line revealed no accumulation of JIP-23, the most abundant jasmonate inducible protein, in epidermal cells attacked by the pathogen and in adjacent mesophyll cells. As a positive control, cross sections from jasmonate-treated leaf segments showed a strong signal for # JIP-23 accumulation. Because the presence of the jasmonate-inducible protein is highly indicative for a low threshold level of endogenous jasmonate (Lehmann et al., 1995), the lack of JIP-23 accumulation at the sites of attempted fungal infection clearly demonstrates the absence of enhanced levels of jasmonate. Moreover this excludes even a local rise of jasmonate confined to those single cells penetrated (Mlo genotype) or attacked (mlo5 genotype) by the fungus.Along with previous findings demonstrating that (i) extracts from infected, whole barley leaves did not contain enhanced levels of jasmonates, (ii) transcripts of jasmonate-inducible genes were not expressed upon infection, and (iii) exogenous application of jasmonates did not induce resistance to Egh, the data strongly negate a significant role of jasmonates in the interaction of barley with the powdery mildew fungus. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 220 TI - Betacyanins from plants and cell cultures of Phytolacca americana JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1996 SP - 1039-1046 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Joy-IV, R.W. AU - Komamine, A. AU - Metzger, J.W. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 42 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319422 DO - 10.1016/0031-9422(96)00100-8 AB - Betacyanins from cell cultures of Phytolacca americanawere characterized and compared with those of the stems and ripening fruits of the plant. Whereas in fruits prebetanin (betanin 6'-O-sulfate) and its isoform predominate, in the stem and cell cultures feruloylated derivatives occur as the major components. These were rigorously identified by various spectroscopic techniques (DAD-HPLC, NMR, LC-MS and electrospray MS/MS) and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-[(5''-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-ß-D-apiofuranosyl]-ß-D- glucopyranoside, a new betacyanin of higher plants, and betanidin 5-O-(6'-O-E-feruloyl)-ß-D- glucopyranoside (lampranthin II), together with their isoforms. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 221 TI - Assay for tyrosine hydroxylation activity of tyrosinase from betalain-forming plants and cell cultures JO - Anal. Biochem. PY - 1996 SP - 72-75 AU - Steiner, U. AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Strack, D. VL - 238 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00032697 DO - 10.1006/abio.1996.0253 AB - In our studies on tyrosinase-catalyzed tyrosine hydroxylation, possibly involved in betalain biosynthesis, we have evaluated different assays for the detection and quantification of the enzymic product DOPA with respect to sensitivity, simplicity and suitability for automatization. A tyrosinase assay including reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic elution and fluorescence detection has been developed (native fluorescence of DOPA; excitation at 281 nm, emission at 314 nm). This improved assay was sensitive (detection limit: 2 pmol DOPA) and showed a wide linear range of DOPA detection (10 pmol - 20 nmol DOPA). The method proved to be suitable for high-performance liquid chromatography with an autosampler and has been applied for measuring tyrosinase activity of cell cultures and different tissues of Portulaca grandiflora. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 553 TI - Partial purification and characterization of UDP-glucose:betanidin 5-O- and 6-O-glucosyltransferases from cell suspension cultures of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis (Burm. f.) N. E. Br JO - Planta PY - 1996 SP - 244-250 AU - Heuer, S. AU - Vogt, T. AU - Böhm, H. AU - Strack, D. VL - 199 UR - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00196565 DO - 10.1007/BF00196565 AB - Uridine 5′-diphosphoglucose-dependent glucosyl-transferases (UDP-glucose:betanidin 5-O- and 6-O-glucosyltransferases; 5-GT and 6-GT; EC 2.4.1) catalyze the regiospecific transfer of glucose to the 5- and 6-hydroxy group of betanidin in the formation of betanin and gomphrenin I, respectively. Both GT activities were partially purified from cell suspension cultures of Dorotheanthus bellidiformis (Burm. f.) N.E. Br. Isoelectric focusing of crude protein extracts indicated the presence of three 5-GT isoforms and a single 6-GT form. The 5-GT isoforms were partially separated from each other and completely from the 6-GT. Studies of the glucosyltransferase activities were focused on the major isoform of the 5-GTs and the 6-GT, which displayed the same pH optimum near 7.5 in K-phosphate buffer. A 3- and 2.5-fold enrichment and 11% and 10% recovery of the 5-GT and 6-GT, respectively, were routinely achieved; however, a 3300-fold enrichment of the major 5-GT isoform and a 6-fold enrichment of the 6-GT were also achieved. Both enzymes are monomers and displayed apparent native Mrs near 55 000. The maxima of the reaction temperature were at 50 °C for the 5-GT and at 37°C for the 6-GT with respective apparent energies of activation of 51 and 53 kJ · mol−1. Kinetic studies indicated that the apparent Michaelis constants (apparent K m) of the GTs for one substrate were dependent on the concentration of the second substrate. However, the relationship between the apparent K m values and the dissociation constants (K i) were different; m > K i applies for the 5-GT and K m < K i for the 6-GT activity. Consequently, this results in a predominant formation of betanin at low substrate concentrations, but a predominant formation of gomphrenin I at high substrate concentrations, assuming that both enzymes may compete freely for their substrates. This might explain why we could not observe a correlation between extractable 5-GT and 6-GT activities and the in-vivo accumulation of the respective products from cell-suspension cultures of D. bellidiformis. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 485 TI - Isolation, characterization and expression of a cDNA coding for a jasmonate-inducible protein of 37 kDa in barley leaves JO - Plant Cell Environ. PY - 1996 SP - 675-684 AU - Leopold, J. AU - Hause, B. AU - Lehmann, J. AU - Graner, A. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 19 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-3040 DO - 10.1111/j.1365-3040.1996.tb00402.x AB - In barley leaves, there is a dramatic alteration of gene expression upon treatment with jasmonates leading to the accumulation of newly formed proteins, designated as jasmonate-inducible proteins (JIPs). In the present study, a new jasmonate-inducible cDNA, designated pHvJS37, has been isolated by differential screening of a γgt10 cDNA library constructed from mRNA of jasmonate-treated barley leaf segments. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a 39-9 kDa polypeptide which cross-reacts with antibodies raised against the in vivo JIP-37. The hydropathic plot suggests that the protein is mainly hydrophilic, containing two hydrophilic domains near the C-terminus. Database searches did not show any sequence homology of pHv.JS37 to known sequences. Southern analysis revealed at least two genes coding for JIP-37 which map to the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 3 and are closely related to genes coding for JIP-23. The expression pattern of the JIP-37 genes over time shows differential responses to jasmonate, abscisic acid (ABA), osmotic stress (such as sorbitol treatment) and desiccation stress. No expression was found under salt stress. From experiments using an inhibitor and intermediates of jasmonate synthesis such as α-linolenic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid, we hypothesize that there is a stress-induced lipid-based signalling pathway in which an endogenous rise of jasmonate switches on JIP-37 gene expression. Using immunocytochemical techniques, JIP-37 was found to be simultaneously located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the vacuoles. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 473 TI - Developmental and tissue-specific expression of JIP-23, a jasmonate-inducible protein of barley JO - Plant Cell Physiol. PY - 1996 SP - 641-649 AU - Hause, B. AU - Demus, U. AU - Teichmann, C. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 37 UR - http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/641.abstract AB - Developmental expression of a 23 kDa jasmonate-induced protein (JIP-23) of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) was studied by measuring the time-dependent accumulation of transcript and protein during germination. Tissue-specific expression of JIP-23 was analyzed immunocytochemically and by in situ hybridizations, respectively. During seed germination JIP-23 mRNA was found to accumulate transiently with a maximum at 32 h, whereas the protein was steadily detectable after the onset of expression. The occurrence of new isoforms of JIP-23 during germination in comparison to jasmonate-treated leaves suggests, that the JIP-23 gene family of barley is able to express different subsets of isoforms dependent on the developmental stage. JIP-23 and its transcript were found mainly in the scutellum, the scutellar nodule and in lower parts of the primary leaf of 6 days old seedlings. All these tissues exhibited high levels of endogenous jasmonates. In situ hybridization revealed specific accumulation of JIP-23 mRNA in companion cells of the phloem in the nodule plate of the scutellum. In accordance with that, JIP-23 was detected immunocytochemically in phloem cells of the root as well as of the scutellar nodule and in parenchymatic cells of the scutellum. The cell type-specific occurrence of JIP-23 was restricted to cells, which are known to be highly stressed osmotically by active solute transport. This observation suggests, that the expression of this protein might be a response to osmotic stress during development. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 381 TI - Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms JO - Planta PY - 1996 SP - 288-293 AU - Feussner, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Nellen, A. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Kindl, H. VL - 198 UR - http://link.springer.com/journal/425 DO - 10.1007/BF00206255 AB - Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12), is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 484 TI - Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms JO - Planta PY - 1996 SP - 288-293 AU - Feussner, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Nellen, A. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Kindl, H. VL - 198 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 557 TI - Sinapic acid ester metabolism in wild type and a sinapoyl glucose-accumulating mutant of Arabidopsis JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1996 SP - 1625-1630 AU - Lorenzen, M. AU - Racicot, V. AU - Strack, D. AU - Chapple, C. VL - 112 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 554 TI - Purification of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine hy-droxycinnamoyltransferase from cell-suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Datura JO - Planta PY - 1996 SP - 166-168 AU - Hohlfeld, H. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. VL - 199 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 556 TI - Changes in the accumulation of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and fungus-infected leaves of Solanum tuberosum JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1996 SP - 389-396 AU - Keller, H. AU - Hohlfeld, H. AU - Wray, V. AU - Hahlbrock, K. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. VL - 42 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 517 TI - Betacyanins from plants and cell cultures of Phytolacca americana JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1996 SP - 1039-1046 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Joy IV, R.W. AU - Komamine, A. AU - Metzger, J.W. AU - Nimtz, M. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 42 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 555 TI - Hydroxycinnamoyltransferases involved in the accumulation of caffeic acid esters in gametophytes and sporophytes of Equisetum arvense JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1996 SP - 1153-1159 AU - Hohlfeld, M. AU - Veit, M. AU - Strack, D. VL - 111 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 373 TI - Jasmonate-induced lipoxygenase forms are localized in chloroplasts of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) JO - The Plant Journal PY - 1995 SP - 949-957 AU - Feussner, I. AU - Hause, B. AU - Vörös, K. AU - Parthier, B. AU - Wasternack, C. VL - 7 UR - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-313X DO - 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07060949.x AB - Barley leaves respond to application of (−)-jasmonic acid (JA), or its methylester (JM) with the synthesis of abundant proteins, so-called jasmonate induced proteins (JIPs). Here Western blot analysis is used to show a remarkable increase upon JM treatment of a 100 kDa lipoxygenase (LOX), and the appearance of two new LOX forms of 98 and 92 kDa. The temporal increase of LOX-100 protein upon JM treatment was clearly distinguishable from the additionally detectable LOX forms. JM-induced LOX forms in barley leaves were compared with those of Arabidopsis and soybean leaves. Both dicot species showed a similar increase of one LOX upon JM induction, whereas, leaves from soybean responded with additional synthesis of a newly formed LOX of 94 kDa.Using immunofluorescence analysis and isolation of intact chloroplasts, it is demonstrated that JM-induced LOX forms of barley leaves are exclusively located in the chloroplasts of all chloroplast-containing cells. Analogous experiments carried out with Arabidopsis and soybean revealed a similar plastidic location of JM-induced LOX forms in Arabidopsis but a different situation for soybean. In untreated soybean leaves the LOX protein was mainly restricted to vacuoles of paraveinal mesophyll cells. Additionally, LOX forms could be detected in cytoplasm and nuclei of bundle sheath cells. Upon JM treatment cytosolic LOX was detectable in spongy mesophyll cells, too. The intracellular location of JM-induced LOX is discussed in terms of stress-related phenomena mediated by JM. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 551 TI - Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of acridone synthase from elicited Ruta graveolens L. cell suspension cultures JO - Plant Mol. Biol. PY - 1995 SP - 681-692 AU - Junghans, K.T. AU - Kneusel, R.E. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Maier, W. AU - Gröger, D. AU - Matern, U. VL - 27 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 552 TI - Partial purification and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: anthranilic acid N-methyltransferase from Ruta cell suspension cultures JO - J. Plant Physiol. PY - 1995 SP - 1-6 AU - Maier, W. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Gröger, D. VL - 145 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 550 TI - Partial purification and characteriza-tion of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine hydroxycinna-moyltransferase from cell-suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1995 SP - 545-552 AU - Hohlfeld, H. AU - Schürmann, W. AU - Scheel, D. AU - Strack, D. VL - 107 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 328 TI - Levels of a terpenoid glycoside (blumenin) and cell wall-bound phenolics in some cereal mycorrhizas JO - Plant Physiol. PY - 1995 SP - 465-470 AU - Maier, W. AU - Peipp, H. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Wray, V. AU - Strack, D. VL - 109 UR - AB - Four cereals, Hordeum vulgare (barley), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Secale cereale (rye), and Avena sativa (oat), were grown in a defined nutritional medium with and without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Levels of soluble and cell wall-bound secondary metabolites in the roots of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography during the first 6 to 8 weeks of plant development. Whereas there was no difference in the levels of the cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids, 4-coumaric and ferulic acids, there was a fungus-induced change of the soluble secondary root metabolites. The most obvious effect observed in all four cereals was the induced accumulation of a terpenoid glycoside. This compound was isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) to be a cyclohexenone derivative, i.e. blumenol C 9-O-(2'-O-b-glucuronosyl)-b-glucoside. The level of this compound was found to be directly correlated with the degree of root colonization. A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 548 TI - Purification and properties of acridone synthase from Cell suspension cultures of Ruta graveolens L JO - Z. Naturforsch. PY - 1994 SP - 26-32 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Maier, W. AU - Gröger, D. AU - Deutzmann, R. VL - 49 c UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 513 TI - Purine glucosylating activity in cell suspension cultures of Solanum tuberosum L JO - Plant Cell Tiss Org PY - 1994 SP - 265-267 AU - Gottstein, D. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 36 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 515 TI - Native gibberellin-O-glucosides from mature seeds of Phaseolus coccineus JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1994 SP - 35-38 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schaller, B. AU - Jensen, E. AU - Schneider, G. VL - 35 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 549 TI - Acridone alkaloids from cell suspension cultures of Thamnosma montana JO - Planta Med. PY - 1994 SP - 143-145 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Maier, W. AU - Matern, U. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Schumann, B. AU - Gröger, D. VL - 60 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 482 TI - Intracellular localization of jasmonate-induced proteins in barley leaves JO - Bot. Acta PY - 1994 SP - 333-341 AU - Hause, B. AU - zur Nieden, U. AU - Lehmann, J. AU - Wasternack, C. AU - Parthier, B. VL - 107 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 514 TI - Gibberellin conjugates: An overview JO - Plant Growth Regul PY - 1994 SP - 247-260 AU - Schneider, G. AU - Schliemann, W. VL - 15 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 547 TI - Synthesis of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone and its conversion to rutacridone by cell-free extracts of Ruta graveolens cell cultures JO - Phytochemistry PY - 1993 SP - 691-698 AU - Maier, W. AU - Baumert, A. AU - Schumann, B. AU - Furukawa, H. AU - Gröger, D. VL - 32 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 546 TI - Synthesis and mass spectral analysis of coenzyme A thioesters of anthranilic acid and its N-methyl derivative involved in acridone alkaloid biosynthesis JO - Phytochemical Analysis PY - 1993 SP - 165-170 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Gröger, D. VL - 4 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 512 TI - Gibberellins in gramineae JO - Plant Growth Regul PY - 1993 SP - 91-98 AU - Schliemann, W. AU - Schneider, G. VL - 12 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 544 TI - Secondary metabolites produced by callus cultures of various Ruta species JO - Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cultures PY - 1992 SP - 159-162 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Gröger, D. AU - Kuzovkina, I.N. AU - Reisch, J. VL - 28 UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER - TY - JOUR ID - 545 TI - Formation of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone from N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by cell-free extracts of Ruta graveolens JO - Z. Naturforsch. PY - 1992 SP - 365-368 AU - Baumert, A. AU - Porzel, A. AU - Schmidt, J. AU - Gröger, D. VL - 47 c UR - AB - A2 - C1 - Cell and Metabolic Biology ER -