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da Silva, I. C. V.; Kaluderovic, G.; de Oliveira, P. F.; Guimaraes, D. O.; Quaresma, C. H.; Porzel, A.; Muzitano, M. F.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Leal, I. C. R. Apoptosis caused by triterpenes and phytosterols and antioxidant activity of an enriched flavonoid extract and from Passiflora mucronata Anti-Cancer Agents Med Chem 18, 1405-1416, (2018) DOI: 10.2174/1871520618666180315090949

Background: P. mucronata (Pm) comes from South America, Brazil and is characterized as “Maracujá de Restinga”. It is used in folk medicine for its soothing properties and in treating insomnia. Objective: The present study for the first time analyzed the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract and fractions from Pm. Method: The cytotoxicity test will be evaluated by different assays (MTT and CV) against human prostate cancer (PC3) and mouse malignant melanoma (B16F10) cell lines, and the antioxidant test by DPPH method. Results: β-Amyrin, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated of the most active, hexane fraction. These substances were tested against the tumor cell lines: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the most relevant activity to PC3 in CV assay and, oleanolic acid to B16F10 by the MTT assay. In addition, it was possible to indicate that the mode of cell death for stigmasterol, presumably is apoptosis. In terms of antioxidant activity, the hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented higher activity (EC50 133.3 μg/mL) compared to the flower (EC50 152.3 μg/mL) and fruit (EC50 207.9 μg/mL) extracts. By the HPLC-MS, it was possible to identify the presence of flavones in the leaf extract (isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, vitexin, isoorientin, orientin). Conclusions: P. mucronata hexane fraction showed promising cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines, and stigmasterol contributes to this activity, inducing apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, as other Passiflora species, Pm extract showed antioxidant activity and flavones are its major phenolic compounds.

Frolov, A.; Bilova, T.; Paudel, G.; Berger, R.; Balcke, G. U.; Birkemeyer, C.; Wessjohann, L. A. Early responses of mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants to reduced water potential in the agar-based polyethylene glycol infusion drought model J Plant Physiol 208, 70-83, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.09.013

Drought is one of the most important environmental stressors resulting in increasing losses of crop plant productivity all over the world. Therefore, development of new approaches to increase the stress tolerance of crop plants is strongly desired. This requires precise and adequate modeling of drought stress. As this type of stress manifests itself as a steady decrease in the substrate water potential (ψw), agar plates infused with polyethylene glycol (PEG) are the perfect experimental tool: they are easy in preparation and provide a constantly reduced ψw, which is not possible in soil models. However, currently, this model is applicable only to seedlings and cannot be used for evaluation of stress responses in mature plants, which are obviously the most appropriate objects for drought tolerance research. To overcome this limitation, here we introduce a PEG-based agar infusion model suitable for 6–8-week-old A. thaliana plants, and characterize, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the early drought stress responses of adult plants grown on PEG-infused agar. We describe essential alterations in the primary metabolome (sugars and related compounds, amino acids and polyamines) accompanied by qualitative and quantitative changes in protein patterns: up to 87 unique stress-related proteins were annotated under drought stress conditions, whereas further 84 proteins showed a change in abundance. The obtained proteome patterns differed slightly from those reported for seedlings and soil-based models.

Rahn, J.; Lennicke, C.; Kipp, A. P.; Müller, A. S.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Lichtenfels, R.; Seliger, B. Altered protein expression pattern in colon tissue of mice upon supplementation with distinct selenium compounds Proteomics 17, 1600486, (2017) DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201600486

The essential trace element selenium (Se) is controversially discussed concerning its role in health and disease. Its various physiological functions are largely mediated by Se incorporation in the catalytic center of selenoproteins. In order to gain insights into the impact of Se deficiency and of supplementation with different Se compounds (selenite, selenate, selenomethionine) at defined concentrations (recommended, 150 μg/kg diet; excessive, 750 μg/kg diet) in murine colon tissues, a 20‐week feeding experiment was performed followed by analysis of the protein expression pattern of colon tissue specimens by 2D‐DIGE and MALDI‐TOF MS. Using this approach, 24 protein spots were identified to be significantly regulated by the different Se compounds. These included the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin‐5 (PRDX5), proteins with binding capabilities, such as cofilin‐1 (COF1), calmodulin, and annexin A2 (ANXA2), and proteins involved in catalytic processes, such as 6‐phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD). Furthermore, the Se compounds demonstrated a differential impact on the expression of the identified proteins. Selected target structures were validated by qPCR and Western blot which mainly confirmed the proteomic profiling data. Thus, novel Se‐regulated proteins in colon tissues have been identified, which expand our understanding of the physiologic role of Se in colon tissue.

Pantelić, N.; Stanojković, T. P.; Zmejkovski, B. B.; Kaluđerović, G. N.; Sabo, T. J. Antiproliferative Activity of Gold(III) Complexes with Esters of Cyclohexyl-Functionalized Ethylenediamine-N,N’-Diacetate Serb J Exp Clin Res 18, 289-294, (2017) DOI: 10.1515/sjecr-2017-0067

Six gold(III) complexes with esters of cyclohexyl-functionalized ethylenediamine-N,N’-diacetate, general formula [AuCl2{(S,S)-R2eddch}]PF6, [(S,S)-eddch = (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoate, R = Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, i-Bu, i-Am, 1–6, respectively], were tested against cancer cell lines such as human melanoma Fem-x, human colon carcinoma LS174T and non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 as well as a non-cancerous human embryonic lung fibroblasts MRC-5 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with the aim of assessing in vitro antitumoral activity and selectivity. All investigated complexes showed lower cytotoxicity and better or similar selectivity in comparison to cisplatin, used as reference compound. Complex [AuCl2{(S,S)-(i-Am)2eddch}]PF6 (6) demonstrated the highest activity against Fem-x (IC50 = 14.98 ± 0.34 μM). Additionally, the same complex expressed 4.5 times higher selectivity than cisplatin.

Lennicke, C.; Rahn, J.; Kipp, A. P.; Dojčinović, B. P.; Müller, A. S.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Lichtenfels, R.; Seliger, B. Individual effects of different selenocompounds on the hepatic proteome and energy metabolism of mice BBA-Gen Subjects 1861, 3323-3334, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.08.015

BackgroundSelenium (Se) exerts its biological activity largely via selenoproteins, which are key enzymes for maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis. However, besides these beneficial effects there is also evidence that an oversupply of Se might increase the risk towards developing metabolic disorders. To address this in more detail, we directly compared effects of feeding distinct Se compounds and concentrations on hepatic metabolism and expression profiles of mice.MethodsMale C57BL6/J mice received either a selenium-deficient diet or diets enriched with adequate or high doses of selenite, selenate or selenomethionine for 20 weeks. Subsequently, metabolic parameters, enzymatic activities and expression levels of hepatic selenoproteins, Nrf2 targets, and additional redox-sensitive proteins were analyzed. Furthermore, 2D-DIGE-based proteomic profiling revealed Se compound-specific differentially expressed proteins.ResultsWhereas heterogeneous effects between high concentrations of the Se compounds were observed with regard to body weight and metabolic activities, selenoproteins were only marginally increased by high Se concentrations in comparison to the respective adequate feeding. In particular the high-SeMet group showed a unique response compromising higher hepatic Se levels in comparison to all other groups. Accordingly, hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and GSTpi1 expression were comparably high in the high-SeMet and Se-deficient group, indicating that compound-specific effects of high doses appear to be independent of selenoproteins.ConclusionsNot only the nature, but also the concentration of Se compounds differentially affect biological processes.

Janković-Tomanikć, M.; Todorović, D.; Stanivuković, Z.; Perić Mataruga, V.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Kaluđerović, G. N. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles SBA-15 loaded with emodin upregulate the antioxidative defense of Euproctis chrysorrhoea  (L.) larvae. Turk J Biol 41, 935-942, (2017) DOI: 10.3906/biy-1705-76

The study presented here aims to elucidate the effects of emodin (EO = 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) in its free form and when loaded into a mesoporous silica nanocarrier SBA-15 (→ SBA-15|EO) on the activities of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase, in larvae of a polyphagous insect pest, the browntail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.). The results show that only SBA-15|EO upregulates the activities of the tested antioxidative enzymes. These results point to significant differences in the effectiveness of the compound in the free versus the loaded form.

Pantelić, N.; Zmejkovski, B. B.; Kolundžija, B.; Crnogorac, M. Đ.; Vujić, J. M.; Dojčinović, B.; Trifunović, S. R.; Stanojković, T. P.; Sabo, T. J.; Kaluđerović, G. N. In vitro antitumor activity, metal uptake and reactivity with ascorbic acid and BSA of some gold(III) complexes with N,N′-ethylenediamine bidentate ester ligands J Inorg Biochem 172, 55-66, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.04.001

Four novel gold(III) complexes of general formulae [AuCl2{(S,S)-R2eddl}]PF6 (R2eddl = O,O′-dialkyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(4-methyl)pentanoate, R = n-Pr, n-Bu, n-Pe, i-Bu; 1–4, respectively), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV/Vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy, as well as high resolution mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations pointed out that (R,R)-N,N′-configuration diastereoisomers were energetically the most favorable. Duo to high cytotoxic activity complex 3 was chosen for stability study in DMSO, no decomposition occurs within 24 h, and for the reaction with ascorbic acid in which was reduced immediately. Additionally, 3 interacts with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as proven by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In vitro antitumor activity was determined against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human myelogenous leukemia (K562), and human melanoma (Fem-x) cancer cell lines, as well as against non-cancerous human embryonic lung fibroblast cells MRC-5. The highest activity was observed against K562 cells (IC50: 5.04–6.51 μM). Selectivity indices showed that these complexes are less toxic than cisplatin. 3 had a similar viability kinetics on HeLa cells as cisplatin. Drug accumulation studies in HeLa cells showed that the total gold uptake increased much faster than that of cisplatin pointing out that 3 more efficiently enters the cells than cisplatin. Furthermore, morphological and cell cycle analysis reveal that gold(III) complexes induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manner.

Zmejkovski, B. B.; Pantelić, N.; Filipović, L.; Aranđelović, S.; Radulović, S.; Sabo, T. J.; Kaluđerović, G. N. In Vitro Anticancer Evaluation of Platinum(II/IV) Complexes with Diisoamyl Ester of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-propanoic Acid Anti-Cancer Agents Med Chem 17, 1136-1143, (2017) DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666161207155634

Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes [PtCln{(S,S)-(i-Am)2eddip}] (n = 2, 4: 1, 2, respectively; (S,S)-(i-Am)2eddip = O,O’-diisoamyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-propanoate) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict formed isomers of 1 and 2. Furthermore, reduction of 2 with ascorbic acid was followed by time-dependant 13C NMR spectroscopy in order to enable assignation of the formed isomers for complex 1. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined for 1 and 2 on a panel of five human tumor cell lines derived from cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-453), colorectal cancer (LS 174), erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562), as well as one non-malignant human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. Both complexes exhibited high (2 against K562: IC50 = 5.4 µM), more active than cisplatin, to moderate activity (1). Both complexes caused considerable decrease of cell number in K562 cells in G1, S and G2 phases, concordantly increasing subpopulation in sub-G1 fraction. Morphological analysis of K562 cell death induced by platinum(II/IV) complexes indicate apoptosis. 

Hübner, D.; Kaluđerović, M. R.; Gómez-Ruiz, S.; Kaluđerović, G. N. Anionic chlorido(triphenyl)tin(IV) bearing N-phthaloylglycinato or 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylato 1,2-anhydride ligands: potential cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing agents against several types of cancer Chem Biol Drug Des 89, 628-633, (2017) DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.12885

Two ionic triphenyltin(IV) chloride carboxylate compounds of the formula [NHEt3][Ph3SnCl(L)] [LH = N-phthaloylglycine (P-GlyH), 1; 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic 1,2-anhydride (BTCH), 2] were tested for the in vitro activity against 518A2 (melanoma), FaDu (head and neck carcinoma), HT-29 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), and SW1736 (thyroid cancer) cell lines. The ammonium salts of the carboxylic acids are found to be not active, while anionic [Ph3SnCl(L)]− exhibited high cytotoxicity in nM range, both higher activity and selectivity than cisplatin. Compounds 1 and 2 are inducing apoptosis, which was proved with the morphological and biochemical features such as membrane blebbing, translocation of phosphatidylserine, and DNA fragmentation. Thus, accumulation of cells in sub-G1 phase is observed. Both anionic organotin(IV) compounds showed potent cytotoxic and apoptotic properties against five cancer cell lines of various histogenetic origin.

Lennicke, C.; Rahn, J.; Bukur, J.; Hochgräfe, F.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Lichtenfels, R.; Seliger, B. Modulation of MHC class I surface expression in B16F10 melanoma cells by methylseleninic acid. OncoImmunology 6(6), e1259049, (2017) DOI: 10.1080/2162402X.2016.1259049

The essential trace element selenium (Se) might play a role in cancer prevention as well as for cancer therapy. Its metabolite methylselenol is able to kill cells through distinct mechanisms including induction of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage and apoptosis. Since methylselenol affects innate immune responses by modulating the expression of NKG2D ligands, the aim of this study was to determine whether the methylselenol generating compound methylseleninic acid (MSA) influences the expression of the MHC class I surface antigens and growth properties thereby reverting immune escape.Treatment of B16F10 melanoma cells expressing low basal MHC class I surface antigens with dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe) and MSA, but not with selenomethionine and selenite resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of MHC class I cell surface antigens. This was due to a transcriptional upregulation of some major components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) and the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and accompanied by a reduced migration of B16F10 melanoma cells in the presence of MSA. Comparative “ome”-based profilings of untreated and MSA-treated melanoma cells linked the anti-oxidative response system with MHC class I antigen processing. Since MSA treatment enhanced MHC class I surface expression also on different human tumors cell lines, MSA might affect the malignant phenotype of various tumor cells by restoring MHC class I APM component expression due to an altered redox status and by partially mimicking IFN-gamma signaling thereby providing a novel mechanism for the chemotherapeutic potential of methylselenol generating Se compounds.

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