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Publications - Stress and Develop Biology

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Publications

Dietz, S.; Herz, K.; Döll, S.; Haider, S.; Jandt, U.; Bruelheide, H.; Scheel, D. Semi‐polar root exudates in natural grassland communities Ecol Evol 9, 5526-5541, (2019) DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5043

In the rhizosphere, plants are exposed to a multitude of different biotic and abiotic factors, to which they respond by exuding a wide range of secondary root metabolites. So far, it has been unknown to which degree root exudate composition is species‐specific and is affected by land use, the local impact and local neighborhood under field conditions. In this study, root exudates of 10 common grassland species were analyzed, each five of forbs and grasses, in the German Biodiversity Exploratories using a combined phytometer and untargeted liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS) approach. Redundancy analysis and hierarchical clustering revealed a large set of semi‐polar metabolites common to all species in addition to species‐specific metabolites. Chemical richness and exudate composition revealed that forbs, such as Plantago lanceolata and Galium species, exuded more species‐specific metabolites than grasses. Grasses instead were primarily affected by environmental conditions. In both forbs and grasses, plant functional traits had only a minor impact on plant root exudation patterns. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining and untargeted profiling of semi‐polar metabolites under field condition and allow a deeper view in the exudation of plants in a natural grassland community.
Publications

Herz, K.; Dietz, S.; Gorzolka, K.; Haider, S.; Jandt, U.; Scheel, D.; Bruelheide, H. Correction: Linking root exudates to functional plant traits PLOS ONE 14, e0213965, (2019) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213965

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Publications

Westphal, L.; Strehmel, N.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Bauer, N.; Westermann, B.; Rosahl, S.; Scheel, D.; Lee, J. pH effects on plant calcium fluxes: lessons from acidification-mediated calcium elevation induced by the γ-glutamyl-leucine dipeptide identified from Phytophthora infestans Sci Rep 9, 4733, (2019) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41276-0

Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation is an early signaling response upon exposure to pathogen-derived molecules (so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns, MAMPs) and has been successfully used as a quantitative read-out in genetic screens to identify MAMP receptors or their associated components. Here, we isolated and identified by mass spectrometry the dipeptide γ-Glu-Leu as a component of a Phytophthora infestans mycelium extract that induces [Ca2+]cyt elevation. Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings with synthetic γ-Glu-Leu revealed stimulatory effects on defense signaling, including a weak enhancement of the expression of some MAMP-inducible genes or affecting the refractory period to a second MAMP elicitation. However, γ-Glu-Leu is not a classical MAMP since pH adjustment abolished these activities and importantly, the observed effects of γ-Glu-Leu could be recapitulated by mimicking extracellular acidification. Thus, although γ-Glu-Leu can act as a direct agonist of calcium sensing receptors in animal systems, the Ca2+-mobilizing activity in plants reported here is due to acidification. Low pH also shapes the Ca2+ signature of well-studied MAMPs (e.g. flg22) or excitatory amino acids such as glutamate. Overall, this work serves as a cautionary reminder that in defense signaling studies where Ca2+ flux measurements are concerned, it is important to monitor and consider the effects of pH.
Publications

Matern, A.; Böttcher, C.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Westermann, B.; Smolka, U.; Döll, S.; Trempel, F.; Aryal, B.; Scheel, D.; Geisler, M.; Rosahl, S. A substrate of the ABC transporter PEN3 stimulates bacterial flagellin (flg22)-induced callose deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana J Biol Chem 294, 6857-6870, (2019) DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.007676

Nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Phytophthora infestans, a filamentous eukaryotic microbe and the causal agent of potato late blight, is based on a multilayered defense system. Arabidopsis thaliana controls pathogen entry through the penetration-resistance genes PEN2 and PEN3, encoding an atypical myrosinase and an ABC transporter, respectively, required for synthesis and export of unknown indole compounds. To identify pathogen-elicited leaf surface metabolites and further unravel nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, we performed untargeted metabolite profiling by incubating a P. infestans zoospore suspension on leaves of WT or pen3 mutant Arabidopsis plants. Among the plant-secreted metabolites, 4-methoxyindol-3-yl-methanol and S-(4-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl) cysteine were detected in spore suspensions recollected from WT plants, but at reduced levels from the pen3 mutant plants. In both whole-cell and microsome-based assays, 4-methoxyindol-3-yl-methanol was transported in a PEN3-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound is a PEN3 substrate. The syntheses of both compounds were dependent on functional PEN2 and phytochelatin synthase 1. None of these compounds inhibited mycelial growth of P. infestans in vitro. Of note, exogenous application of 4-methoxyindol-3-yl methanol slightly elevated cytosolic Ca2+ levels and enhanced callose deposition in hydathodes of seedlings treated with a bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), flagellin (flg22). Loss of flg22-induced callose deposition in leaves of pen3 seedlings was partially reverted by the addition of 4-methoxyindol-3-yl methanol. In conclusion, we have identified a specific indole compound that is a substrate for PEN3 and contributes to the plant defense response against microbial pathogens.
Printed publications

Guerra, T.; Schilling, S.; Hake, K.; Gorzolka, K.; Sylvester, F.; Conrads, B.; Westermann, B.; Romeis, T. Calcium‐dependent protein kinase 5 links calcium‐signaling with N‐Hydroxy‐L‐pipecolic acid‐ and SARD1‐dependent immune memory in systemic acquired resistance New Phytol (2019) DOI: 10.1111/nph.16147

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) prepares infected plants for faster and stronger defense activation upon subsequent attacks. SAR requires an information relay from primary infection to distal tissue and the initiation and maintenance of a self‐maintaining phytohormone salicylic acid (SA)‐defense loop.In spatial and temporal resolution, we show that calcium‐dependent protein kinase CPK5 contributes to immunity and SAR. In local basal resistance CPK5 functions upstream of SA‐synthesis, ‐perception, and ‐signaling. In systemic tissue, CPK5 signaling leads to accumulation of SAR inducing metabolite N‐Hydroxy‐L‐pipecolic acid (NHP) and SAR marker genes including Systemic Acquired Resistance Deficient 1 (SARD1)Plants of increased CPK5‐, but not CPK6‐ signaling, display an ‘enhanced SAR' phenotype toward a secondary bacterial infection. In sard1‐1 background, CPK5‐mediated basal resistance is still mounted, but NHP level is reduced and ‘enhanced SAR' is lost.The biochemical analysis determines CPK5 half maximal kinase activity for calcium K50 [Ca2+] to ~100 nM close to the cytoplasmic resting level. This low threshold uniquely qualifies CPK5 to decode subtle changes in calcium prerequisite to signal relay and onset and maintenance of priming at later time points in distal tissue. Our data explain why CPK5 functions as a hub in basal and systemic plant immunity.
Books and chapters

Doell, S.; Arens, N.; Mock, H. Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry of Plants: Techniques and Applications (Meyers, R. A., ed.). (2019) ISBN: 9780470027318 DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9912.pub2

Mass spectrometry coupled with LC (liquid chromatography) separation has developed into a technique routinely applied for targeted as well as for nontargeted analysis of complex biological samples, not only in plant biochemistry. Earlier on, LC‐MS (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry) was mostly part of the efforts for identification of one or few unknown metabolites of interest as part of a phytochemical study. As a major strategy, unknown compounds had to be purified in sufficient quantities. The purified fractions were then subjected to LC‐MS/MS as part of the structural elucidation, mostly complemented by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. With the advance of mass spectrometry instrumentation, LC‐MS is now widely applied for analysis of crude plant extracts and large numbers (100s to 1000s) of samples. It has become an essential part of metabolomic studies (see Metabolomics), aiming at the comprehensive coverage of the metabolite profiles of cells, tissues, or organs. Owing to the huge chemical diversity of small molecules, conditions for the extraction will restrict the subfraction of the metabolome, which can be actually analyzed. The conditions for LC have to be adjusted to allow good separation of the particular metabolites from the respective extract. Major consideration will be the selection of an appropriate column and suitable eluents, the establishment of gradient profiles, temperature conditions, and so on.
Publications

Menzel, W.; Stenzel, I.; Helbig, L.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; Neumann, S.; Eschen‐Lippold, L.; Heilmann, M.; Lee, J.; Heilmann, I. A PAMP‐triggered MAPK cascade inhibits phosphatidylinositol 4,5‐bisphosphate production by PIP5K6 in Arabidopsis thaliana New Phytol 224, 833-847, (2019) DOI: 10.1111/nph.16069

The phosphoinositide kinase PIP5K6 has recently been identified as a target for the mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) MPK6. Phosphorylation of PIP5K6 inhibited the production of phosphatidylinositol 4,5‐bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), impacting membrane trafficking and cell expansion in pollen tubes. Here, we analyzed whether MPK6 regulated PIP5K6 in vegetative Arabidopsis cells in response to the pathogen‐associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22.Promoter‐β‐glucuronidase analyses and quantitative real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data show PIP5K6 expressed throughout Arabidopsis tissues. Upon flg22 treatment of transgenic protoplasts, the PIP5K6 protein was phosphorylated, and this modification was reduced for a PIP5K6 variant lacking MPK6‐targeted residues, or in protoplasts from mpk6 mutants.Upon flg22 treatment of Arabidopsis plants, phosphoinositide levels mildly decreased and a fluorescent reporter for PtdIns(4,5)P2 displayed reduced plasma membrane association, contrasting with phosphoinositide increases reported for abiotic stress responses. Flg22 treatment and chemical induction of the upstream MAPK kinase, MKK5, decreased phosphatidylinositol 4‐phosphate 5‐kinase activity in mesophyll protoplasts, indicating that the flg22‐activated MAPK cascade limited PtdIns(4,5)P2 production. PIP5K6 expression or PIP5K6 protein abundance changed only marginally upon flg22 treatment, consistent with post‐translational control of PIP5K6 activity. PtdIns(4,5)P2‐dependent endocytosis of FM 4‐64, PIN2 and the NADPH‐oxidase RbohD were reduced upon flg22 treatment or MKK5 induction. Reduced RbohD‐endocytosis was correlated with enhanced ROS production.We conclude that MPK6‐mediated phosphorylation of PIP5K6 limits the production of a functional PtdIns(4,5)P2 pool upon PAMP perception.
Publications

Goslin, K.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Naumann, C.; Linster, E.; Sorel, M.; Klecker, M.; de Marchi, R.; Kind, A.; Wirtz, M.; Lee, J.; Dissmeyer, N.; Graciet, E. Differential N-end Rule Degradation of RIN4/NOI Fragments Generated by the AvrRpt2 Effector Protease Plant Physiol 180, 2272-2289, (2019) DOI: 10.1104/pp.19.00251

In plants, the protein RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) is a central regulator of both pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. RIN4 is targeted by several effectors, including the Pseudomonas syringae protease effector AvrRpt2. Cleavage of RIN4 by AvrRpt2 generates potentially unstable RIN4 fragments, whose degradation leads to the activation of the resistance protein RESISTANT TO P. SYRINGAE2. Hence, identifying the determinants of RIN4 degradation is key to understanding RESISTANT TO P. SYRINGAE2–mediated effector-triggered immunity, as well as virulence functions of AvrRpt2. In addition to RIN4, AvrRpt2 cleaves host proteins from the nitrate-induced (NOI) domain family. Although cleavage of NOI domain proteins by AvrRpt2 may contribute to pattern-triggered immunity regulation, the (in)stability of these proteolytic fragments and the determinants regulating their stability remain unexamined. Notably, a common feature of RIN4, and of many NOI domain protein fragments generated by AvrRpt2 cleavage, is the exposure of a new N-terminal residue that is destabilizing according to the N-end rule. Using antibodies raised against endogenous RIN4, we show that the destabilization of AvrRpt2-cleaved RIN4 fragments is independent of the N-end rule pathway (recently renamed the N-degron pathway). By contrast, several NOI domain protein fragments are genuine substrates of the N-degron pathway. The discovery of this set of substrates considerably expands the number of known proteins targeted for degradation by this ubiquitin-dependent pathway in plants. These results advance our current understanding of the role of AvrRpt2 in promoting bacterial virulence.
Printed publications

Tabassum, N.; Eschen‐Lippold, L.; Athmer, B.; Baruah, M.; Brode, M.; Maldonado‐Bonilla, L. D.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Hause, G.; Scheel, D.; Lee, J. Phosphorylation‐dependent control of an RNA granule‐localized protein that fine‐tunes defence gene expression at a post‐transcriptional level Plant J (2019) DOI: 10.1111/tpj.14573

Mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are key signalling modules of plant defence responses to pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g. bacterial flg22 peptide). The Tandem Zinc Finger Protein 9 (TZF9) is an RNA‐binding protein that is phosphorylated by two PAMP‐responsive MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. We mapped the major phosphosites in TZF9 and showed their importance for controlling in vitro RNA‐binding activity, in vivo flg22‐induced rapid disappearance of TZF9‐labelled processing body‐like structures and TZF9 protein turnover. Microarray analysis showed a strong discordance between transcriptome (total mRNA) and translatome (polysome‐associated mRNA) in the tzf9 mutant, with more mRNAs associated to ribosomes in the absence of TZF9. This suggests that TZF9 may sequester and inhibit translation of subsets of mRNAs. Fittingly, TZF9 physically interacts with poly(A)‐binding protein 2 (PAB2), a hallmark constituent of stress granules – a site for stress‐induced translational stalling/arrest. TZF9 even promotes stress granule assembly in the absence of stress. Hence, MAPKs may control defence gene expression post‐transcriptionally through release from translation arrest within TZF9‐PAB2‐containing RNA granules or perturbing PAB2 functions in translation control (e.g. in the mRNA closed‐loop model of translation).
Printed publications

Jiang, X.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Scheel, D.; Lee, J. Phosphorylation of the CAMTA3 transcription factor triggers its destabilization and nuclear export bioRxiv (2019) DOI: 10.1101/825323

The calmodulin-binding transcription activator 3 (CAMTA3) is a repressor of immunity-related genes but an activator of cold-induced genes in plants. Post-transcriptional or -translational mechanisms have been proposed to control CAMTA3’s role in the crosstalk between immune and chilling responses. Here, we show that treatment with the bacterial flg22 elicitor, but not cold stress, induces a phospho-mobility shift of CAMTA3 proteins. Correspondingly, CAMTA3 is directly phosphorylated by two flg22-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, which triggers CAMTA3 nuclear export and destabilization. SR1IP1, a substrate E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor required for pathogen-induced CAMTA3 degradation, is shown here to be likely plasma-membrane-localized and therefore cannot physically interact with the nuclear CAMTA3. Despite the flg22-inducible re-localization of CAMTA3 to the cytoplasm, we failed to detect CAMTA3-SR1IP1 complexes. Hence, the role of SR1IP1 for CAMTA3 degradation needs to be re-evaluated. Surprisingly, flg22 elicitation can still induce nuclear export and phospho-mobility shift of a phospho-null CAMTA3 that cannot be phosphorylated by MAPKs, suggesting the participation of additional flg22-responsive kinase(s). A constitutively-active calcium-dependent protein kinase, CPK5, can stimulate a phospho-mobility shift in CAMTA3 similar to that induced by flg22. Although CPK5 can interact with CAMTA3, it did not directly phosphorylate CAMTA3, suggesting the requirement of a still unidentified downstream kinase or additional components. Overall, at least two flg22-responsive kinase pathways target CAMTA3 to induce degradation that presumably serves to remove CAMTA3 from target promoters and de-repress expression of defence genes.
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