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60 years Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry:
a brief historical outline

Members of the Institute in the year 1964


Founding years under Kurt Mothes

The Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) was founded on January 1, 1958 in Halle an der Saale as the Institute for Biochemistry of Plants (IBP) and joined the German Academy of Sciences of then East Germany as a member institution. Its founding director, Professor Kurt Mothes, had previously headed the Department of Chemical Physiology at the Academic Institute for Crop Plant Research in nearby Gatersleben and the Institute for Pharmacognosy at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU). In 1954, Mothes had assumed presidency of the Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina in Halle (1954-1974). He additionally took over the chair of General Botany at the MLU in 1958. In 1963, Mothes founded the first chair of Plant Biochemistry in Germany.

To answer current questions in the still young field of plant biochemistry, Mothes brought experts from all relevant disciplines to the institute: biologists, chemists, biochemists and pharmacists. With this interdisciplinary approach, Mothes was far ahead of his time. The reactive brew of ideas gave rise to a special momentum and creativity that still characterizes the intellectual and cultural life at the institute today.

Science in the Mothes period (1958-1967)

Research on alkaloids
Under Mothes' leadership, research activities initially focused strongly on alkaloid substances of selected medicinal and poisonous plants. With radioisotope technology, which was state-of-the-art at that time, scientists began to elucidate the biosynthesis of interesting alkaloids such as nicotine, ricinine, atropine, cocaine, morphine and other opium poppy alkaloids (Horst Robert Schütte). In addition to these purely biochemical projects, researchers also investigated cell and developmental biology of alkaloid production in Papaver somniferum.

Mothes became famous for his quest for an alleged poppy variety in which morphine synthesis stops at the stage of the intermediate product codeine. Codeine, he hoped, could then be exploited as starting material for partial synthesis of all painkillers and anaesthetics, with the result that the increasing global drug problem and illegal opium production could be counteracted. In the mid-50s, Mothes embarked on an exhaustive search for the morphine-free opium poppy and finally found a variant of the Armenian poppy Papaver bracteatum, in which morphine biosynthesis prematurely halts. Consequently, P. bracteatum accumulates thebaine instead of morphine in its latex cells. The idea of replacing opium poppy with a morphine-free variety aroused great interest at the United Nations, but was later abandoned for political reasons. Still Papaver bracteatum was retained as a natural mutant and became the focus of IPB researchers’ interest again in 1999, when morphine biosynthesis was investigated with molecular and cell biological approaches.

Groundbreaking successes were also achieved in the field of ergot alkaloids. Under Detlef Gröger’s leadership, a liquid culture-based method for the cultivation of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea was established at the institute. Soon this submersion culture replaced the parasitic culture method used until then, and formed the basis for the development of industrial processes for the production of pharmaceutically relevant claviceps alkaloids. Gröger's achievements were regarded as milestones in ergot research. In 2005, he received the Egon Stahl Award from the Society for Medicinal Plant Research for his work in the field of pharmaceutical biology.

In the 1960s, the institute had already gained an international reputation in the field of alkaloid research and thus, Mothes succeeded in bringing the International Conference of Alkaloids to Halle three times (1961, 1964, and 1969). Such events were unusual for a time when the East German government was more concerned with isolation than with international cooperation.

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In addition to the more application-oriented drug research projects, IBP scientists also studied basic plant growth and developmental processes. Based on earlier work on protein metabolism during senescence, Mothes explored the function of cytokinin analogues and cytokinins in the early 1960s. His findings contributed substantially to the state of knowledge on these newly discovered phytohormones at the time. They led to the development of the hormone-mediated source-sink theory for aging and other physiological processes in plants, which is still valid today. Mothes was also able to identify the Green Islands effect caused by leaf miner larvae on aging leaves as a cytokinin-mediated effect. The finding was published in Nature in 1969.

Laboratory life in 1964


The Institute under the direction of Klaus Schreiber (1968-1989)

The long period under the leadership of Klaus Schreiber was characterized by a growing interference of the East German government with the concerns of science. Massive restrictions in the freedom of science and severe curbing of basic research marked East German science since the 1970s. Instead, more and more attention and funding was directed towards application-oriented projects on behalf of agricultural cooperatives and industry. IBP scientists began looking for new natural or synthetic plant growth regulators for more effective weed and pest control and an overall yield increase. Research was done on economically important crops such as cereals and potatoes. These cooperation projects with industry resulted in a large number of patents and an annual raising of approximately 4.5 million GDR-Marks in third-party funds.

As a chemist, Klaus Schreiber also made sure that chemical topics were given greater emphasis at the institute. Modern analytical equipment was purchased, the library was equipped with chemical reference books, and the number of trained chemists grew. Under Schreiber's leadership, the institute for the first time was given a departmental structure. Biological topics were carried out in the departments of Hormone Research (Benno Parthier), Stress Research (Lutz Nover), Resistance Research (Siegfried Johne) and Growth Regulators (Günter Sembdner). The departments Medicinal Plant Research (Detlef Gröger) and Natural Product Chemistry (Günter Adam) focused on chemical projects. By drawing from chemistry expertise in biological questions, Schreiber sharpened the profile of the institute and ultimately gave it its modern face. To this day, the integration of biological and chemical topics is a unique feature of the IPB in the German research landscape.

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Günter Adam (right) on excursion in Vietnam.

Drug research
In the mid-1970s, the institute's chemists began an intensive search for natural compounds that could serve as lead structures for the development of new medications. They mainly focused on plants from the primeval forests of Vietnam, which were used in folk medicine against various diseases. Numerous plant constituents, including some potential active substances, could be isolated and structurally elucidated at this time. These ethno-pharmacological projects under the direction of Günter Adam were continued after reunification and are still a focus of the Department of Bioorganic Chemistry today. Since 1972, generations of Vietnamese natural product chemists have been trained at the institute. Many of them now hold leading positions at research institutes in their home country.

Stress research
In the field of stress research led by Lutz Nover, scientists could prove for the first time that plants, like bacteria, form classical heat shock proteins upon heat stress. The findings aroused international interest and were published in Cell in 1982. Later, these results led to the development of the chaperone theory, which is still being experimentally investigated worldwide.

Hormone research
Based on earlier work on cytokinins, IBP scientists investigated genetic regulation and protein metabolism of chloroplast biogenesis. At the beginning of the 70s, the institute provided evidence for the existence of a plastid-specific genome and that a number of chloroplast-specific genes are functional and active, being transcribed and translated independently of genes in the cell nucleus. This research was led by Benno Parthier. In addition, other phytohormones such as gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene were investigated at the IBP. In particular at that time, interest centered on gibberellins as haulm stabilizers for agricultural purposes. In the 1970s, scientists started the structural elucidation and synthesis of some gibberellin compounds and their conjugates (Günter Adam). Since financial partners from agriculture and industry ceased to exist after reunification, work in this field was discontinued in the early 1990s and the patents were released.

Reunification: Re-establishment under Benno Parthier (1989-1997)

Professor Benno Parthier

In autumn 1989, demonstrations in Leipzig, Halle and many other cities marked the political change in East Germany. After the retirement of Klaus Schreiber, the East German Academy of Sciences appointed Klaus Müntz as the new director of the IBP. One year later, his directorate was officially replaced by Benno Parthier who, in May 1990, had been elected as the new director by the institute’s staff. According to the Unification Treaty between the two German states, East Germany’s Academy of Sciences had to disband by 31.12.1991, whereas the academy institutes, such as the IBP, had to undergo a rigorous evaluation process by the German Science Council. Afterwards, the fate of the nearly 70 academy institutes was decided: they were either decommissioned, affiliated with an university, or granted membership in one of the four German scientific associations.

The Science Council made the following recommendation on the IBP:
"In consideration of Halle's outstanding tradition in the field of plant sciences... the Science Council recommends the establishment of an independent research institute... which, due to its national importance...
fulfils the conditions for a Blue List Institute (today Leibniz Association).“

Therefore, the Institute of Biochemistry of Plants (IBP) of East Germans Academy of Sciences was closed on 31.12.1991 and re-established on 01.01.1992 as Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) of the (later) Leibniz Association. In 1993, Lothar Franzen became the first Administrative Director of the institute. The Scientific Advisory Board chaired by Jozef Schell and the Board of Trustees were founded in January 1994 as controlling and advisory bodies. Every seven years, the scientific and administrative departments of the IPB were to be evaluated by the Science Council and later by the Senate of the Leibniz Association. From 1994 on, the organizational framework of the newly founded institute was in place. Henceforth, research was carried out in four scientific departments: Natural Product Chemistry (Günter Adam), Hormone Research (Benno Parthier), Secondary Metabolism (Dieter Strack), and Stress and Developmental Biology (Dierk Scheel).

Benno Parthier headed the IPB as Managing Director until 1997. As President of the Leopoldina Academy and member of the East-West German Commission of the German Science Council, he played an important role as a mediator between science and politics in East and West Germany. In 1997, he received the Federal Cross of Merit for his achievements in the successful unification of two scientific systems.

Science before and after reunification:
Pioneering research on new phytohormones

At the beginning of the 1980s, two new substance classes were discovered, which were discussed as new phytohormones: the brassinosteroids and the jasmonates. Both hormone classes were investigated promptly and successfully at IPB, which resulted in a continuation of these projects even after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Günter Adam led a number of fundamental experiments on brassinosteroids, in particular on physiological effects and ubiquitous occurrence of the newly discovered signaling substances. With his retirement in 1999, work on steroid hormones was discontinued.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Claus Wasternack took the lead in IPB jasmonate (JA) research which continues uninterruptedly to this day. In 1981, free jasmonic acid was successfully isolated from the pericarp of unripe field beans at the institute for the first time. Furthermore, using a radioimmunoassay developed at the institute, researchers were able to prove the endogenous existence of the hormone in various other plants. About a decade later, the first JA-induced proteins (JIPs) were discovered at IPB, laying the foundation for the elucidation of the jasmonate mode of action. Immunocytological methods enabled IPB scientists to localize JA biosynthesis within the plant cell. Also, various JA conjugates were discovered that were, however, not very active. The IPB was able to prove that the 12-OH-JA derivative plays a role in the termination of the JA signaling pathway. Numerous further insights into crosstalk and regulatory patterns of jasmonates followed. In 2009, when the active isoleucine conjugate of jasmonic acid was found, IPB scientists proved that the signal substance is only active in its isomeric cis form.

After Claus Wasternack's retirement in 2008, jasmonate research was continued by Bettina Hause (Department of Cell and Metabolic Biology) and additionally, since 2016, by Debora Gasperini and her group in the Department of Molecular Signal Processing. These groups investigate early events of jasmonate signaling (Gasperini Lab) and the role of jasmonates in trichome and flower development, as well as in mycorrhization (Hause Lab). The insights gained at the institute contributed greatly to the fundamental understanding of these phytohormones. Continuing to this day, the IPB is a highly regarded center of jasmonate research.

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Launching a new era: New Technologies and Platforms (1998-2010)

After the retirement of Benno Parthier, Dierk Scheel became Managing Director of the institute from 1998 to 2004 and later again from 2006 to 2008. Parthier's department was continued in 1999 by Toni Kutchan under the name Natural Product Biotechnology. In 2005, Toni Kutchan also took over the management of the institute, before she accepted a professorship in the United States of America in 2006. Günter Adam was succeeded in 2000 by Ludger Wessjohann, who took over the chemical department of Bioorganic Chemistry. The first external evaluation after the institute’s re-establishment proceeded very positively for the IPB.

In its comments of July 1999, the Science Council wrote:

"The IPB has successfully managed the transformation process required after German unification. The combination of biological questions with the synthesis and analytical competence that is characteristic for the institute is outstanding. There are only a few institutions in Germany and abroad that are comparable to the IPB in terms of the combination and quality of the aforementioned research priorities."

Also after the following evaluation in summer 2006, the Institute received a positive recommendation from the Senate of the Leibniz Association for a further seven-year funding period within the Leibniz Association. The main suggestions of the Senate for the further strategic development of the institute were as follows:
• the introduction of new technologies,
• the establishment of independent junior research groups and
• a stronger networking of the various areas of expertise at IPB.

The institute subsequently developed a new research concept that provided stronger cooperation of the scientific departments in four cross-linked priority areas. In practical terms, this networking was to occur on different technology platforms. The first platform was already established in 2001 as a metabolomics platform in the Department of Stress and Developmental Biology. In 2002, Dierk Scheel also established a bioinformatics group in his department. The IPB's first independent junior research group, led by Marcel Quint, started its research on auxin signal transduction in 2007.

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Research of the departments

Natural Product Biotechnology (1999-2006)

The Department of Natural Product Biotechnology, headed by Toni Kutchan, resumed studies in morphine biosynthesis from 1999 on. In 2004, IPB researchers succeeded in demonstrating that morphine biosynthesis is bound to the highly differentiated cellular structures of latex cells. Attempting a biotechnological production of the opiate in cell cultures therefore proved to be hopeless. Instead, IPB scientists aimed to developed transgenic poppy plants with increased biosynthesis of morphine due to reduction in the by-products sanguinarine and laudanine. The transformation of opium poppy succeeded, but did not lead to the desired outcome. From 2006 onwards, research on this topic at the IPB was terminated. Until 2008, the department was provisionally led by Claus Wasternack.

Secondary Metabolism (1993-2010)

Detection of mycorradicin (arrow) in mycorrhizal roots

At the department of Secondary Metabolism, headed by Dieter Strack, focus lay on the analysis of various secondary substance classes, such as phenylpropanoids and isoprenoids. Selected experimental systems such as arbuscular mycorrhiza served as research subjects. IPB scientists were able to show that the biosynthesis of the mycorrhiza-specific isoprenoid mycorradicin is induced by the fungus during its colonization of the plant root (Michael H. Walter).

A second project aimed at the reduction of the bitter substance content in rapeseed (Carsten Milkowski). By inactivating the main biosynthesis genes, the amount of the prevalent bitter substance sinapoylcholine could be reduced by 80 percent, making rapeseed a potential animal feed and food additive. Due to a lack of acceptance for transgenic plants in Europe, the project was terminated in 2004. Follow-up work such as field trials were later relocated to Canada.

Most of the department's projects ended with the retirement of Dieter Strack in fall 2010. This did not include work on evolutionary development of important biosynthesis enzymes of secondary metabolism (Thomas Vogt) and on the relationship between jasmonate function and mycorrhization (Bettina Hause).

Stress and Developmental Biology (1994 - 2018)

The Department of Stress and Developmental Biology led by Dierk Scheel investigates plant defense reactions against biotic stress caused by pathogens and abiotic stress caused by increased heavy metal concentrations in the soil. In an effort to better understand plant heavy metal resistance, researchers compared several thousand gene activities of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis halleri - a metal-hyperaccumulating plant that tolerates cadmium in high concentrations. They found about 20 genes that exhibited higher expression levels in A. halleri than in A. thaliana including those encoding for metal transporters or synthesis enzymes of metal chelators. Project leader Stephan Clemens was appointed to the University of Bayreuth in 2006.

Infection of a leaf epidermis cell with P. infestans

The IPB played a major role in the discovery of signaling mechanisms in plant basic immunity. In the late 1990s, Dierk Scheel and Thorsten Nürnberger were one of the first scientists worldwide who discovered a Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) for a plant-pathogenic organism, namely Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of late blight in potatoes. By means of phosphoproteomics screens several substrates of MAP kinases were identified, including transcription factors and other MAP kinases (Dierk Scheel and Justin Lee). In 2015, IPB scientists found the first plant receptor for lipopolysaccharides, which are widely spread PAMP structures in the realm of pathogens.

In a two-tiered approach combining genetic screening and metabolite profiling researchers aimed to shed light on defense responses against P. infestans. Emerging from an EMS screen on A. thaliana were 14 susceptible mutants of which affected genes are currently being analyzed. Metabolite profiling of P. infestans-infected versus uninfected Arabidopsis plants revealed a large number of infection-specific metabolites. Further metabolomics projects can be found under ‘Interdepartmental Projects’. After Dierk Scheel's retirement, the department was taken over in February 2019 by Tina Romeis and renamed Biochemistry of Plant Interactions.

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Bioorganic Chemistry (since 2000)

Under the leadership of Ludger Wessjohann, the Bioorganic Chemistry department is pursuing a holistic approach to identify and analyze new substance classes that can be used as lead structures for medications against Alzheimer's disease, cancer and infections. In 2003, a lead structure for a potential antiseptic was isolated from native fungi of the genus Hygrophorus (Norbert Arnold). Six years later, an active substance against P. infestans was found in the same genus. Increasingly, plants from Africa, South America and Southeast Asia, or previously underexplored organisms such as fungi or algae serve as sources for the discovery of bioactive compounds.

In frame of ethnopharmacological projects, the IPB internationally collaborates with the countries of origin. As part of the joint project Welcome to Africa, the institute’s researchers succeeded in developing a screening assay for anthelmintics in plant extracts (Norbert Arnold and Katrin Franke). In the follow-up project Tri-Sustain, a doctoral training program for young scientists from participating universities in Halle, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Botswana was established. Since 2015, within the Biohealth joint project, IPB scientists have been searching for anthelmintic and anti-infective agents from traditional Indonesian medicinal plants.

In the follow-up project Tri-Sustain, a doctoral training program for young scientists from participating universities in Halle, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Botswana was established. Since 2015, within the Biohealth joint project, IPB scientists have been searching for anthelmintic and anti-infective agents from traditional Indonesian medicinal plants.

The search for bioactive compounds is also supported by methods of in silico screening. For example, the screening of substance databases with 1.2 million virtual structures led to the identification of 73 substance candidates that may increase plant resistance against drought stress. A drought stress test on Lemna developed at the IPB revealed 35 active compounds among these 73 candidates. Together with partners from industry, the most promising compounds are now being modified and tested on cereal plants. Wolfgang Brandt's expertise in computer chemistry also helps in elucidating catalysis mechanisms with 3D models of protein structures and thus in optimizing biotechnological production processes of bioactive compounds.

In the field of https://www.ipb-halle.de/en/research/bioorganic-chemistry/research-groups/synthesis/synthesis, multi-component reactions serve the production of large and diverse pools of different compounds (Ludger Wessjohann and Bernhard Westermann). Over the last decade, IPB has applied combinatorial chemistry to generate a variety of compounds such as peptide mimetics, cyclic lipopeptides and complex macrocycles. In 2011, the synthesis of Tubugis - a highly cytostatic substance with picomolar activity - was successfully completed implementing a multiple multicomponent reaction of three interlaced multicomponent reactions. In addition to these classical synthesis methods, biocatalytic syntheses with sequential enzymatic reactions are being pursued, and in 2016, resulted in production of a taste modulator. This compound reduces the bitterness of bitter substances by blocking taste receptors on the tongue and thus, has great potential for application in food industry.

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The IPB from 2010: Interconnected into the future

Under Ludger Wessjohann’s directorate, two new departments were founded at the institute. The Department of Natural Product Biotechnology was reorganized into the Department of Molecular Signal Processing led by Steffen Abel. In 2010, Alain Tissier took over the Department of Secondary Metabolism and renamed it Cell and Metabolic Biology. Christiane Cyron became Administrative Director of the institute in 2011. In the same year, following the last evaluation’s recommendation, two further independent junior research groups, led by Nico Dissmeyer and Marco Trujillo were established. In addition, the interdepartmental platforms for cell biology (Bettina Hause) and proteome analysis (Wolfgang Hoehenwarter) were set up. Another positive evaluation in 2013 granted a maximum funding for the IPB for seven more years. To increase its international visibility, the institute began organizing the annual Leibniz Plant Biochemistry Symposium in 2015 endeavoring to establish a leading short conference in the field of plant biochemistry.

Molecular Signal Processing (from 2009)

Secondary root growing under phosphate deficiency

Secondary root growing under phosphate deficiency

The Department of Molecular Signal Processing, led by Steffen Abel, investigates many aspects of plant environmental plasticity. Research on adaptation of roots to nutrient deficiencies (Steffen Abel) revealed that Arabidopsis plants with phosphate deficiency accumulate more iron in the stem cell niche of their roots. As a consequence, deep growth is reduced and lateral root formation is increased. The underlying molecular mechanisms for this process have been and will be further elucidated.

Two research groups dealing with phytohormones, study molecular mechanisms of early jasmonate production and signalling (Debora Gasperini) and small-molecule mediated proteostasis in auxin signalling (Luz Irina Calderón Villalobos). The phytohormone auxin causes the formation of receptor complex which ultimately leads to the activation of auxin response genes. With comprehensive binding studies and 3D models, IPB researchers demonstrated that the formation of various core receptor complexes is biochemically possible and occurs with different affinities.

The discovery that the hourglass model of embryonic development, originally postulated for animals, is also valid for plants caused a tremendous sensation in the community of evolutionary researchers. Former junior research group leader Marcel Quint who had joined the department in 2010 published this remarkable study in Nature in 2012 in collaboration with bioinformaticians from the University of Halle.

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Cell and Metabolic Biology (from 2010)

In the Department of Cell and Metabolic Biology, headed by Alain Tissier, the metabolism of glandular trichomes, especially trichome-specific biosyntheses of economically interesting secondary metabolites, is being investigated. The researchers could, for instance, decipher the biosynthetic pathways of carnosic acid in rosemary and of Z-Abienol in Virginian tobacco. While carnosic acid is currently used as a natural preservative in foods, Z-Abienol serves as a precursor for the perfume industry. Transformation of the respective biosynthesis genes into yeast may allow biotechnological production in the future.

In 2017, IPB researchers were able to elucidate the central energy and carbon metabolism in glandular trichomes of tomato. This led to a first and highly regarded model of trichomal metabolic fluxes. Furthermore, extensive comparisons of glandular trichomes of cultivated tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) with various wild tomato species, such as Solanum habrochaites, yielded important insights into the contribution of trichomes to plant defense against insect attacks.

With the aim to enable plants to produce interesting secondary metabolites, the department is making great efforts in the field of Synthetic Biology. Silvestre Marillonnet is continually expanding the Golden Gate modular cloning system that allows the assembly of multigene constructs for expression in plants. In the SmartPlants project, researchers currently use TAL effectors to develop plants capable of stimulus-induced and organ-specific production of selected compounds.

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Interdepartmental projects

The expertise of different departments is bundled into decentralized technology platforms Screening, Cell Biology, Metabolomics and Proteome Analytics. Also, experts in bioinformatics (Steffen Neumann), chemoinformatics and computer modeling (Wolfgang Brandt), as well as structure elucidation using NMR techniques (Andrea Porzel) and mass spectrometry (Jürgen Schmidt, Andrej Frolov and Steffen Neumann) contribute to cooperation projects of all departments.

Especially in the field of metabolomics/mass spectrometry, the IPB has built up considerable expertise over the past decade. Metabolomics projects include the metabolite profiling of glandular trichomes, mycorrhizal roots and pathogen-infected plants. Special attention is given to the determination of metabolic diversity and dynamics of roots and the corresponding rhizosphere. Currently, in cooperation with other partners, a metabolite atlas of the rhizosphere is being generated in which root exudates of different plant species are determined and analyzed. The atlas will be updated constantly; the results will be integrated in mapping plant metabolic pathways.

Single metabolites are identified using databases and advanced bioinformatic and mass spectrometric methods. The IPB develops algorithms, tools and statistical approaches for the evaluation and interpretation of metabolomics data in the context of dynamic metabolic pathways (Steffen Neumann). In order to improve scientific communication in the still young field of metabolomics, the IPB has co-developed a SPectraL hash code (SPLASH), which allows a standardized storage of mass spectra collected worldwide. The code works like a hash tag. It bundles all data to identical and similar spectra and facilitates their retrieval on the web.

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Since 2017, the institute has been headed and represented by Steffen Abel. At its last audit in October 2017, the Scientific Advisory Board attested the institute a completely conclusive and future-oriented general concept. The institute's research topics are highly relevant to society and orient themselves on current challenges such as climate change, nutrition and biodiversity. With the initiation of the ScienceCampus Halle - Plant-Based Bioeconomy, the institute has also succeeded in embedding itself in the field of bioeconomy.

With the establishment of -omics sciences paired with bio- and chemoinformatics and the new synthesis methods of combinatorial chemistry, the institute has arrived sustainably at the modern age. Now it is necessary to strengthen the field of information technologies and to create modern data management structures. This requires adjustments to the infrastructure and the development of new methods of data storage and analysis in own research groups. The interpretation of collected data in order to gain new insights into biological structures and correlations is the great challenge that the institute will have to face in the future.

A detailed account of the story can be found in the book „60 Jahre Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie“ by Sylvia Pieplow.

This page was last modified on 26.11.2019.

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