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Publikationen - Stoffwechsel- und Zellbiologie

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Gelová, Z., ten Hoopen, P., Novák, O., Motyka, V., Pernisová, M., Dabravolski, S., Didi, V., Tillack, I., Oklešťková, J., Strnad, M., Hause, B., Haruštiaková, D., Conrad, U., Janda, L. & Hejátko, J. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinins in tobacco: organ-specific changes in cytokinin homeostasis.  J Exp Bot. 69, 441-454, (2018) DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx426

Cytokinins comprise a group of phytohormones with an organ-specific mode of action. Although the mechanisms controlling the complex networks of cytokinin metabolism are partially known, the role of individual cytokinin types in the maintenance of cytokinin homeostasis remains unclear. Utilizing the overproduction of single-chain Fv antibodies selected for their ability to bind trans-zeatin riboside and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, we post-synthetically modulated cytokinin ribosides, the proposed transport forms of cytokinins. We observed asymmetric activity of cytokinin biosynthetic genes and cytokinin distribution in wild-type tobacco seedlings with higher cytokinin abundance in the root than in the shoot. Antibody-mediated modulation of cytokinin ribosides further enhanced the relative cytokinin abundance in the roots and induced cytokinin-related phenotypes in an organ-specific manner. The activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase in the roots was strongly up-regulated in response to antibody-mediated formation of the cytokinin pool in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, we only detected a slight decrease in the root cytokinin levels. In contrast, a significant decrease of cytokinins occurred in the shoot. We suggest the roots as the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis in tobacco seedlings. Conversely, cytokinin levels in the shoot seem to depend largely on long-range transport of cytokinin ribosides from the root and their subsequent metabolic activation.


Tissier, A. Plant secretory structures: more than just reaction bags. Curr Opin Biotechnol 49, 73-79, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.copbio.2017.08.003.

Plants have a remarkable capacity for the production of a wide range of metabolites. Much has been reported and reviewed on the diversity of these metabolites and how it is achieved, for example through the evolution of enzyme families. In comparison, relatively little is known on the extraordinary metabolic productivity of dedicated organs where many of these metabolites are synthesized and accumulate. Plant glandular trichomes are such specialized metabolite factories, for which recent omics analyses have shed new light on the adaptive metabolic strategies that support high metabolic fluxes. In photosynthetic trichomes such as those of the Solanaceae, these include CO2 refixation and possibly C4-like metabolism which contribute to the high productivity of these sink organs.

Dreher, D., Yadav, H., Zander, S. & Hause, B. Is there genetic variation in mycorrhization of Medicago truncatula?  PeerJ 5, e3713, (2017) DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3713

Differences in the plant’s response among ecotypes or accessions are often used to identify molecular markers for the respective process. In order to analyze genetic diversity of Medicago truncatula in respect to interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, mycorrhizal colonization was evaluated in 32 lines of the nested core collection representing the genetic diversity of the SARDI collection. All studied lines and the reference line Jemalong A17 were inoculated with R. irregularis and the mycorrhization rate was determined at three time points after inoculation. There were, however, no reliable and consistent differences in mycorrhization rates among all lines. To circumvent possible overlay of potential differences by use of the highly effective inoculum, native sandy soil was used in an independent experiment. Here, significant differences in mycorrhization rates among few of the lines were detectable, but the overall high variability in the mycorrhization rate hindered clear conclusions. To narrow down the number of lines to be tested in more detail, root system architecture (RSA) of in vitro-grown seedlings of all lines under two different phosphate (Pi) supply condition was determined in terms of primary root length and number of lateral roots. Under high Pi supply (100 µM), only minor differences were observed, whereas in response to Pi-limitation (3 µM) several lines exhibited a drastically changed number of lateral roots. Five lines showing the highest alterations or deviations in RSA were selected and inoculated with R. irregularis using two different Pi-fertilization regimes with either 13 mM or 3 mM Pi. Mycorrhization rate of these lines was checked in detail by molecular markers, such as transcript levels of RiTubulin and MtPT4. Under high phosphate supply, the ecotypes L000368 and L000555 exhibited slightly increased fungal colonization and more functional arbuscules, respectively. To address the question, whether capability for mycorrhizal colonization might be correlated to general invasion by microorganisms, selected lines were checked for infection by the root rot causing pathogen, Aphanoymces euteiches. The mycorrhizal colonization phenotype, however, did not correlate with the resistance phenotype upon infection with two strains of A. euteiches as L000368 showed partial resistance and L000555 exhibited high susceptibility as determined by quantification of A. euteiches rRNA within infected roots. Although there is genetic diversity in respect to pathogen infection, genetic diversity in mycorrhizal colonization of M. truncatula is rather low and it will be rather difficult to use it as a trait to access genetic markers. 

Scheibner, F., Marillonnet, S. & Büttner, D. The TAL effector AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria contains multiple export signals and can enter plant cells in the absence of the Type III secretion translocon. Front Microbiol. 8, 2180, (2017) DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02180

Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system which translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Effector protein delivery is controlled by the T3S chaperone HpaB, which presumably escorts effector proteins to the secretion apparatus. One intensively studied effector is the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrBs3, which binds to promoter sequences of plant target genes and activates plant gene expression. It was previously reported that type III-dependent delivery of AvrBs3 depends on the N-terminal protein region. The signals that control T3S and translocation of AvrBs3, however, have not yet been characterized. In the present study, we show that T3S and translocation of AvrBs3 depend on the N-terminal 10 and 50 amino acids, respectively. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that additional signals in the N-terminal 30 amino acids and the region between amino acids 64 and 152 promote translocation of AvrBs3 in the absence of HpaB. Unexpectedly, in vivo translocation assays revealed that AvrBs3 is delivered into plant cells even in the absence of HrpF, which is the predicted channel-forming component of the T3S translocon in the plant plasma membrane. The presence of HpaB- and HrpF-independent transport routes suggests that the delivery of AvrBs3 is initiated during early stages of the infection process, presumably before the activation of HpaB or the insertion of the translocon into the plant plasma membrane.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Schreiber, T. & Tissier, A. Generation of dTALEs and libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters for engineering of gene regulatory networks in plants.. In:  Plant gene regulatory networks: methods and protocols. (Kaufmann, K. et al.). Meth Mol Biol. 1629, 185-204, (2017) ISBN: 978-1-4939-7125-1 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7125-1_13

Transcription factors with programmable DNA-binding specificity constitute valuable tools for the design of orthogonal gene regulatory networks for synthetic biology. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), as natural transcription regulators, were used to design, build, and test libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters (STAPs) that show a broad range of expression levels in plants. In this chapter, we present protocols for the construction of artificial TALEs and corresponding STAPs.

Wang, J.-Z., Li, B., Xiao, Y., Ni, Y., Ke, H., Yang, P., de Souza, A., Bjornson, M., He, X., Shen, Z., Balcke, G. U., Briggs, S. P., Tissier, A., Kliebenstein, D. J. & Dehesh, K. Initiation of ER body formation and indole glucosinolate metabolism by the plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite, MEcPP. . In:
Mol Plant 10, 1400-1416, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2017.09.012

Plants have evolved tightly regulated signaling networks to respond and adapt to environmental perturbations, but the nature of the signaling hub(s) involved have remained an enigma. We have previously established that methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a precursor of plastidial isoprenoids and a stress-specific retrograde signaling metabolite, enables cellular readjustments for high-order adaptive functions. Here, we specifically show that MEcPP promotes two Brassicaceae-specific traits, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation and induction of indole glucosinolate (IGs) metabolism selectively, via transcriptional regulation of key regulators NAI1 for ER body formation and MYB51/122 for IGs biosynthesis). The specificity of MEcPP is further confirmed by the lack of induction of wound-inducible ER body genes as well as IGs by other altered methylerythritol phosphate pathway enzymes. Genetic analyses revealed MEcPP-mediated COI1-dependent induction of these traits. Moreover, MEcPP signaling integrates the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of IGs through induction of nitrile-specifier protein1 and reduction of the suppressor, ESM1, and production of simple nitriles as the bioactive end product. The findings position the plastidial metabolite, MEcPP, as the initiation hub, transducing signals to adjust the activity of hard-wired gene circuitry to expand phytochemical diversity and alter the associated subcellular structure required for functionality of the secondary metabolites, thereby tailoring plant stress responses.

Tissier, A., Morgan, J. A. & Dudareva, N. Plant Volatiles: going ‘In’ but not ‘out’ of trichome cavities.  Trends Plant Sci. 22, 930-938, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.09.001

Plant glandular trichomes are able to secrete and store large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs typically accumulate in dedicated extracellular spaces, which can be either subcuticular, as in the Lamiaceae or Asteraceae, or intercellular, as in the Solanaceae. Volatiles are retained at high concentrations in these storage cavities with limited release into the atmosphere and without re-entering the secretory cells, where they would be toxic. This implies the existence of mechanisms allowing transport of VOCs to the cavity but preventing their diffusion out once they have been delivered. The cuticle and cell wall lining the cavity are likely to have key roles in retaining volatiles, but their exact composition and the potential molecular players involved are largely unknown.

Bjornson, M., Balcke, G. U., Xiao, Y., de Souza, A., Wang, J.-Z., , Zhabinskaya, D., Tagkopoulos, I., Tissier, A. & Dehesh, K. Integrated omics analyses of retrograde signaling mutant delineate interrelated stress-response strata.  Plant J. 91, 70–84, (2017) DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13547

To maintain homeostasis in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic insults, cells have evolved elaborate quality control networks to resolve damage at multiple levels. Interorganellar communication is a key requirement for this maintenance, however the underlying mechanisms of this communication have remained an enigma. Here we integrate the outcome of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics analyses of genotypes including ceh1, a mutant with constitutively elevated levels of both the stress-specific plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite methyl-erythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), as well as the high MEcPP but SA deficient genotype ceh1/eds16, along with corresponding controls. Integration of multi-omic analyses enabled us to delineate the function of MEcPP from SA, and expose the compartmentalized role of this retrograde signaling metabolite in induction of distinct but interdependent signaling cascades instrumental in adaptive responses. Specifically, here we identify strata of MEcPP-sensitive stress-response cascades, among which we focus on selected pathways including organelle-specific regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis; simultaneous induction of synthesis and breakdown of SA; and MEcPP-mediated alteration of cellular redox status in particular glutathione redox balance. Collectively, these integrated multi-omic analyses provided a vehicle to gain an in-depth knowledge of genome-metabolism interactions, and to further probe the extent of these interactions and delineate their functional contributions. Through this approach we were able to pinpoint stress-mediated transcriptional and metabolic signatures and identify the downstream processes modulated by the independent or overlapping functions of MEcPP and SA in adaptive responses.

Publikationen in Druck

Bilova, T., Paudel, G., Shilyaev, N., Schmidt, R., Brauch, D., Tarakhovskaya, E., Milrud, S., Smolikova, G., Tissier, A., Vogt, T., Sinz, A., Brandt, W., Birkemeyer, C., Wessjohann, L. A. & Frolov, A. Global proteomic analysis of advanced glycation end products in the Arabidopsis proteome provides evidence for age-related glycation hotspots. J Biol Chem. 292 , 15758-15776, (2017) DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.794537

Glycation is a post-translational modification resulting from the interaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds. Initially, amino groups react with reducing carbohydrates, yielding Amadori and Heyns compounds. Their further degradation results in formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), also originating from α-dicarbonyl products of monosaccharide autoxidation and primary metabolism. In mammals, AGEs are continuously formed during the life of the organism, and accumulate in tissues, being well-known markers of ageing, impacting age-related tissue stiffing and atherosclerotic changes. However, the role of AGEs in age-related molecular alterations in plants is still unknown. To fill this gap, we present here a comprehensive study of the age-related changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana glycated proteome, including the proteins affected and specific glycation sites therein. We also consider the qualitative and quantitative changes in glycation patterns in terms of the general metabolic background, pathways of AGE formation, and the status of plant anti-oxidative/anti-glycative defense. Although the patterns of glycated proteins were only minimally influenced by plant age, the abundances of 96 AGE sites in 71 proteins were significantly affected in an age-dependent manner and clearly indicated the existence of age-related glycation hotspots in the plant proteome. Homology modeling revealed glutamyl and aspartyl residues in close proximity (less than 5 Å) to these sites in 3 ageing-specific and 8 differentially glycated proteins, four of which were modified in catalytic domains. Thus, the sites of glycation hotspots might be defined by protein structure that indicates, at least partly, site-specific character of glycation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006434 
Publikationen in Druck

Gantner, J., Ilse, T., Ordon, J., Kretschmer, C., Gruetzner, R., Loefke, C., Dagdas, Y., Buerstenbinder, K., Marillonnet, S. & Stuttmann, J. Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the modular cloning system. bioRxiv (2017) DOI: 10.1101/237768

Standardized DNA assembly strategies facilitate the generation of multigene constructs from collections of building blocks in plant synthetic biology. A common syntax for hierarchical DNA assembly following the Golden Gate principle employing Type IIs restriction endonucleases was recently developed, and underlies the Modular Cloning and GoldenBraid systems. In these systems, transcriptional units and/or multigene constructs are assembled from libraries of standardized building blocks, also referred to as phytobricks, in several hierarchical levels and by iterative Golden Gate reactions. This combinatorial assembly strategy meets the increasingly complex demands in biotechnology and bioengineering, and also represents a cost-efficient and versatile alternative to previous molecular cloning techniques. For Modular Cloning, a collection of commonly used Plant Parts was previously released together with the Modular Cloning toolkit itself, which largely facilitated the adoption of this cloning system in the research community. Here, a collection of approximately 80 additional phytobricks is provided. These phytobricks comprise e.g. modules for inducible expression systems, different promoters or epitope tags, which will increase the versatility of Modular Cloning-based DNA assemblies. Furthermore, first instances of a "peripheral infrastructure" around Modular Cloning are presented: While available toolkits are designed for the assembly of plant transformation constructs, vectors were created to also use coding sequence-containing phytobricks directly in yeast two hybrid interaction or bacterial infection assays. Additionally, DNA modules and assembly strategies for connecting Modular Cloning with Gateway Cloning are presented, which may serve as an interface between available resources and newly adopted hierarchical assembly strategies. The presented material will be provided as a toolkit to the plant research community and will further enhance the usefulness and versatility of Modular Cloning.

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