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Kowarschik, K., Hoehenwarter, W., Marillonnet, S. & Trujillo, M.  UbiGate: a synthetic biology toolbox to analyse ubiquitination. New Phytol. (2017) DOI: 10.1111/nph.14900

   Ubiquitination is mediated by an enzymatic cascade that results in the modification of substrate proteins, redefining their fate. This post-translational modification is involved in most cellular processes, yet its analysis faces manifold obstacles due to its complex and ubiquitous nature. Reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascade in bacterial systems circumvents several of these problems and was shown to faithfully recapitulate the process.
    Here, we present UbiGate − a synthetic biology toolbox, together with an inducible bacterial expression system – to enable the straightforward reconstitution of the ubiquitination cascades of different organisms in Escherichia coli by ‘Golden Gate’ cloning.
    This inclusive toolbox uses a hierarchical modular cloning system to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding the multiple genetic elements of the ubiquitination cascade in a predefined order, to generate polycistronic operons for expression.
    We demonstrate the efficiency of UbiGate in generating a variety of expression elements to reconstitute autoubiquitination by different E3 ligases and the modification of their substrates, as well as its usefulness for dissecting the process in a time- and cost-effective manner.
Publikationen in Druck

Gantner, J., Ilse, T., Ordon, J., Kretschmer, C., Gruetzner, R., Loefke, C., Dagdas, Y., Buerstenbinder, K., Marillonnet, S. & Stuttmann, J. Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the modular cloning system. bioRxiv (2017) DOI: 10.1101/237768

Standardized DNA assembly strategies facilitate the generation of multigene constructs from collections of building blocks in plant synthetic biology. A common syntax for hierarchical DNA assembly following the Golden Gate principle employing Type IIs restriction endonucleases was recently developed, and underlies the Modular Cloning and GoldenBraid systems. In these systems, transcriptional units and/or multigene constructs are assembled from libraries of standardized building blocks, also referred to as phytobricks, in several hierarchical levels and by iterative Golden Gate reactions. This combinatorial assembly strategy meets the increasingly complex demands in biotechnology and bioengineering, and also represents a cost-efficient and versatile alternative to previous molecular cloning techniques. For Modular Cloning, a collection of commonly used Plant Parts was previously released together with the Modular Cloning toolkit itself, which largely facilitated the adoption of this cloning system in the research community. Here, a collection of approximately 80 additional phytobricks is provided. These phytobricks comprise e.g. modules for inducible expression systems, different promoters or epitope tags, which will increase the versatility of Modular Cloning-based DNA assemblies. Furthermore, first instances of a "peripheral infrastructure" around Modular Cloning are presented: While available toolkits are designed for the assembly of plant transformation constructs, vectors were created to also use coding sequence-containing phytobricks directly in yeast two hybrid interaction or bacterial infection assays. Additionally, DNA modules and assembly strategies for connecting Modular Cloning with Gateway Cloning are presented, which may serve as an interface between available resources and newly adopted hierarchical assembly strategies. The presented material will be provided as a toolkit to the plant research community and will further enhance the usefulness and versatility of Modular Cloning.

Publikationen in Druck

Gantner, J., Ilse, T., Ordon, J., Kretschmer, C., Gruetzner, R., Loefke, C., Dagdas, Y., Buerstenbinder, K., Marillonnet, S. & Stuttmann, J. Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the modular cloning system.  bioRxiv (2017) DOI: 10.1101/237768

Standardized DNA assembly strategies facilitate the generation of multigene constructs from collections of building blocks in plant synthetic biology. A common syntax for hierarchical DNA assembly following the Golden Gate principle employing Type IIs restriction endonucleases was recently developed, and underlies the Modular Cloning and GoldenBraid systems. In these systems, transcriptional units and/or multigene constructs are assembled from libraries of standardized building blocks, also referred to as phytobricks, in several hierarchical levels and by iterative Golden Gate reactions. This combinatorial assembly strategy meets the increasingly complex demands in biotechnology and bioengineering, and also represents a cost-efficient and versatile alternative to previous molecular cloning techniques. For Modular Cloning, a collection of commonly used Plant Parts was previously released together with the Modular Cloning toolkit itself, which largely facilitated the adoption of this cloning system in the research community. Here, a collection of approximately 80 additional phytobricks is provided. These phytobricks comprise e.g. modules for inducible expression systems, different promoters or epitope tags, which will increase the versatility of Modular Cloning-based DNA assemblies. Furthermore, first instances of a "peripheral infrastructure" around Modular Cloning are presented: While available toolkits are designed for the assembly of plant transformation constructs, vectors were created to also use coding sequence-containing phytobricks directly in yeast two hybrid interaction or bacterial infection assays. Additionally, DNA modules and assembly strategies for connecting Modular Cloning with Gateway Cloning are presented, which may serve as an interface between available resources and newly adopted hierarchical assembly strategies. The presented material will be provided as a toolkit to the plant research community and will further enhance the usefulness and versatility of Modular Cloning.
Publikation

Scheler, U., Brandt, W., Porzel, A., Rothe, K., Manzano, D., Božić, D., Papaefthimiou, D., Balcke, G. U., Henning, A., Lohse, S., Marillonnet, S., Kanellis, A. K., Ferrer, A. & Tissier, A. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast Nat Commun 7, 12942, (2016) DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12942

Rosemary extracts containing the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and its derivative carnosol are approved food additives used in an increasingly wide range of products to enhance shelf-life, thanks to their high anti-oxidant activity. We describe here the elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of carnosic acid and its reconstitution in yeast cells. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYP76AH22-24) from Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia fruticosa already characterized as ferruginol synthases are also able to produce 11-hydroxyferruginol. Modelling-based mutagenesis of three amino acids in the related ferruginol synthase (CYP76AH1) from S. miltiorrhiza is sufficient to convert it to a 11-hydroxyferruginol synthase (HFS). The three sequential C20 oxidations for the conversion of 11-hydroxyferruginol to carnosic acid are catalysed by the related CYP76AK6-8. The availability of the genes for the biosynthesis of carnosic acid opens opportunities for the metabolic engineering of phenolic diterpenes, a class of compounds with potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities.

Publikation

Dobritzsch, M., Lübken, T., Eschen-Lippold, L., Gorzolka, K., Blum, E., Matern, A., Marillonnet, S., Böttcher, C., Dräger, B. & Rosahl, S. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides. Plant Cell 28, 583-596, (2016) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.15.00706

The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface.

Publikation

Scheibner, F., Schulz, S., Hausner, J., Marillonnet, S. & Büttner, D. Type III-Dependent Translocation of HrpB2 by a Nonpathogenic hpaABC Mutant of the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82, 3331-3347 , (2016) DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00537-16

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria employs a type III secretion (T3S) system to translocate effector proteins into plant cells. The T3S apparatus spans both bacterial membranes and is associated with an extracellular pilus and a channel-like translocon in the host plasma membrane. T3S is controlled by the switch protein HpaC, which suppresses secretion and translocation of the predicted inner rod protein HrpB2 and promotes secretion of translocon and effector proteins. We previously reported that HrpB2 interacts with HpaC and the cytoplasmic domain of the inner membrane protein HrcU (C. Lorenz, S. Schulz, T. Wolsch, O. Rossier, U. Bonas, and D. Büttner, PLoS Pathog 4:e1000094, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000094). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the control of HrpB2 secretion are not yet understood. Here, we located a T3S and translocation signal in the N-terminal 40 amino acids of HrpB2. The results of complementation experiments with HrpB2 deletion derivatives revealed that the T3S signal of HrpB2 is essential for protein function. Furthermore, interaction studies showed that the N-terminal region of HrpB2 interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of HrcU, suggesting that the T3S signal of HrpB2 contributes to substrate docking. Translocation of HrpB2 is suppressed not only by HpaC but also by the T3S chaperone HpaB and its secreted regulator, HpaA. Deletion of hpaA, hpaB, and hpaC leads to a loss of pathogenicity but allows the translocation of fusion proteins between the HrpB2 T3S signal and effector proteins into leaves of host and non-host plants.  

Publikation

Walter, M.H., Stauder, R. & Tissier, A. Evolution of root-specific carotenoid precursor pathways for apocarotenoid signal biogenesis Plant Sci 233, 1–10, (2015) DOI: org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.12.017

Various cleavage products of C40 carotenoid substrates are formed preferentially or exclusively in roots. Such apocarotenoid signaling or regulatory compounds differentially induced in roots during environmental stress responses including root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi include ABA, strigolactones and C13 α-ionol/C14 mycorradicin derivatives. The low carotenoid levels in roots raise the question of whether there is a regulated precursor supply channeled into apocarotenoid formation distinct from default carotenoid pathways. This review describes root-specific isogene components of carotenoid pathways toward apocarotenoid formation, highlighting a new PSY3 class of phytoene synthase genes in dicots. It is clearly distinct from the monocot PSY3 class co-regulated with ABA formation. At least two members of the exclusive dicot PSY3s are regulated by nutrient stress and mycorrhization. This newly recognized dicot PSY3 (dPSY3 vs. mPSY3 from monocots) class probably represents an ancestral branch in the evolution of the plant phytoene synthase family. The evolutionary history of PSY genes is compared with the evolution of MEP pathway isogenes encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthases (DXS), particularly DXS2, which is co-regulated with dPSY3s in mycorrhizal roots. Such stress-inducible isoforms for rate-limiting steps in root carotenogenesis might be components of multi-enzyme complexes committed to apocarotenoid rather than to carotenoid formation.

Publikation

Patron, N. J., Orzaez, D., Marillonnet, S., Warzecha, H., Matthewman, C., Youles, M., Raitskin, O., Leveau, A., Farré, G., Rogers, C., Smith, A., Hibberd, J., Webb, A. A. R., Locke, J., Schornack, S., Ajioka, J., Baulcombe, D. C., Zipfel, C., Kamoun, S., Jones, J. D. G., Kuhn, H., Robatzek, S., Van Esse, H. P., Sanders, D., Oldroyd, G., Martin, C., Field, R., O’Connor, S., Fox, S., Wulff, B., Miller, B., Breakspear, A., Radhakrishnan, G., Delaux, P.-M., Loqué, D., Granell, A., Tissier, A., Shih, P., Brutnell, T. P., Quick, W. P., Rischer, H., Fraser, P. D., Aharoni, A., Raines, C., South, P. F., Ané, J.-M., Hamberger, B. R., Langdale, J., Stougaard, J., Bouwmeester, H., Udvardi, M., Murray, J. A. H., Ntoukakis, V., Schäfer, P., Denby, K., Edwards, K. J., Osbourn, A. & Haseloff, J. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts. New Phytol. 208, 13-19, (2015) DOI: 10.1111/nph.13532

nventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.

Bücher und Buchkapitel

Marillonnet, S. & Werner, S. Assembly of Multigene Constructs Using Golden Gate Cloning. . In: Glyco-Engineering: Methods and Protocols (Castilho, A). Methods Mol. Biol. 1321, 269-284, (2015) ISBN: 978-1-4939-2760-9 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2760-9_19.

Conceived with the intention of providing an array of strategies and technologies currently in use for glyco-engineering distinct living organisms, this book contains a wide range of methods being developed to control the composition of carbohydrates and the properties of proteins through manipulations on the production host rather than in the protein itself. The first five sections deal with host-specific glyco-engineering and contain chapters that provide protocols for modifications of the glycosylation pathway in bacteria, yeast, insect, plants and mammalian cells, while the last two sections explore alternative approaches to host glyco-engineering and selected protocols for the analysis of the N-glycans and glyco-profiling by mass spectrometry. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.

Authoritative and extensive, Glyco-Engineering: Methods and Protocols offers vast options to help researchers to choose the expression system and approach that best suits their intended protein research or applications.

Publikation

Heinze, M., Brandt, W., Marillonnet, S. & Roos, W. “Self” and “Non-Self” in the control of phytoalexin biosynthesis: plant phospholipases A2 with alkaloid-specific molecular fingerprints. Plant Cell 27:, 448-462, (2015) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.114.135343

The overproduction of specialized metabolites requires plants to manage the inherent burdens, including the risk of self-intoxication. We present a control mechanism that stops the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes by blocking the antecedent signal transduction cascade. Cultured cells of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) and Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) overproduce benzophenanthridine alkaloids and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, respectively, in response to microbial elicitors. In both plants, an elicitor-responsive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) at the plasma membrane generates signal molecules that initiate the induction of biosynthetic enzymes. The final alkaloids produced in the respective plant inhibit the respective PLA, a negative feedback that prevents continuous overexpression. The selective inhibition by alkaloids from the class produced in the “self” plant could be transferred to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana via recombinant expression of PLA2. The 3D homology model of each PLA2 displays a binding pocket that specifically accommodates alkaloids of the class produced by the same plant, but not of the other class; for example, C. roseus PLA2 only accommodates C. roseus alkaloids. The interaction energies of docked alkaloids correlate with their selective inhibition of PLA2 activity. The existence in two evolutionary distant plants of phospholipases A2 that discriminate “self-made” from “foreign” alkaloids reveals molecular fingerprints left in signal enzymes during the evolution of species-specific, cytotoxic phytoalexins. 

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