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Publikation

Dhakarey, R., Raorane, M. L., Treumann, A., Peethambaran, P. K., Schendel, R. R., Sahi, V. P., Hause, B., Bunzel, M., Henry, A., Kohli, A. & Riemann, M. Physiological and proteomic analysis of the rice mutant cpm2 suggests a negative regulatory role of Jasmonic acid in drought tolerance. Front Plant Sci 8, 1903, (2017) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01903

It is widely known that numerous adaptive responses of drought-stressed plants are stimulated by chemical messengers known as phytohormones. Jasmonic acid (JA) is one such phytohormone. But there are very few reports revealing its direct implication in drought related responses or its cross-talk with other phytohormones. In this study, we compared the morpho-physiological traits and the root proteome of a wild type (WT) rice plant with its JA biosynthesis mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2), disrupted in the allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene, for insights into the role of JA under drought. The mutant had higher stomatal conductance, higher water use efficiency and higher shoot ABA levels under severe drought as compared to the WT. Notably, roots of cpm2 were better developed compared to the WT under both, control and drought stress conditions. Root proteome was analyzed using the Tandem Mass Tag strategy to better understand this difference at the molecular level. Expectedly, AOC was unique but notably highly abundant under drought in the WT. Identification of other differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) suggested increased energy metabolism (i.e., increased mobilization of resources) and reactive oxygen species scavenging in cpm2 under drought. Additionally, various proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell growth and cell wall synthesis were also more abundant in cpm2 roots. Proteome-guided transcript, metabolite, and histological analyses provided further insights into the favorable adaptations and responses, most likely orchestrated by the lack of JA, in the cpm2 roots. Our results in cpm2 are discussed in the light of JA crosstalk to other phytohormones. These results together pave the path for understanding the precise role of JA during drought stress in rice.
Publikation

Dreher, D., Yadav, H., Zander, S. & Hause, B. Is there genetic variation in mycorrhization of Medicago truncatula?  PeerJ 5, e3713, (2017) DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3713

Differences in the plant’s response among ecotypes or accessions are often used to identify molecular markers for the respective process. In order to analyze genetic diversity of Medicago truncatula in respect to interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, mycorrhizal colonization was evaluated in 32 lines of the nested core collection representing the genetic diversity of the SARDI collection. All studied lines and the reference line Jemalong A17 were inoculated with R. irregularis and the mycorrhization rate was determined at three time points after inoculation. There were, however, no reliable and consistent differences in mycorrhization rates among all lines. To circumvent possible overlay of potential differences by use of the highly effective inoculum, native sandy soil was used in an independent experiment. Here, significant differences in mycorrhization rates among few of the lines were detectable, but the overall high variability in the mycorrhization rate hindered clear conclusions. To narrow down the number of lines to be tested in more detail, root system architecture (RSA) of in vitro-grown seedlings of all lines under two different phosphate (Pi) supply condition was determined in terms of primary root length and number of lateral roots. Under high Pi supply (100 µM), only minor differences were observed, whereas in response to Pi-limitation (3 µM) several lines exhibited a drastically changed number of lateral roots. Five lines showing the highest alterations or deviations in RSA were selected and inoculated with R. irregularis using two different Pi-fertilization regimes with either 13 mM or 3 mM Pi. Mycorrhization rate of these lines was checked in detail by molecular markers, such as transcript levels of RiTubulin and MtPT4. Under high phosphate supply, the ecotypes L000368 and L000555 exhibited slightly increased fungal colonization and more functional arbuscules, respectively. To address the question, whether capability for mycorrhizal colonization might be correlated to general invasion by microorganisms, selected lines were checked for infection by the root rot causing pathogen, Aphanoymces euteiches. The mycorrhizal colonization phenotype, however, did not correlate with the resistance phenotype upon infection with two strains of A. euteiches as L000368 showed partial resistance and L000555 exhibited high susceptibility as determined by quantification of A. euteiches rRNA within infected roots. Although there is genetic diversity in respect to pathogen infection, genetic diversity in mycorrhizal colonization of M. truncatula is rather low and it will be rather difficult to use it as a trait to access genetic markers. 
Publikation

Janik, K., Mithöfer, A., Raffeiner, M., Stellmach, H., Hause, B. & Schlink, K. An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors—a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma? Mol Plant Pathol 18, 435-442, (2017) DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12409

The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection.
Publikation

Pedranzani, H., Rodríguez-Rivera, M., Gutiérrez, M., Porcel, R., Hause, B. & Ruiz-Lozano, J. M. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels. Mycorrhiza 26 , 141-152, (2016) DOI: 10.1007/s00572-015-0653-4

This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved in this process

Publikationen in Druck

Janik, K., Mithöfer, A., Raffeiner, M., Stellmach, H., Hause, B. & Schlink, K. An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors—a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma? MOL PLANT PATHOL (2016) DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12409

The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection.

Publikation

Hazmana, M., Hause, B., Eiche, E., Riemann, M. & Nick, P. Different forms of osmotic stress evoke qualitatively different responses in rice J PLANT PHYSIOL 202, 45–56, (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.05.027

Drought, salinity and alkalinity are distinct forms of osmotic stress with serious impacts on rice productivity. We investigated, for a salt-sensitive rice cultivar, the response to osmotically equivalent doses of these stresses. Drought, experimentally mimicked by mannitol (single factor: osmotic stress), salinity (two factors: osmotic stress and ion toxicity), and alkalinity (three factors: osmotic stress, ion toxicity, and depletion of nutrients and protons) produced different profiles of adaptive and damage responses, both locally (in the root) as well as systemically (in the shoot). The combination of several stress factors was not necessarily additive, and we even observed cases of mitigation, when two (salinity), or three stressors (alkalinity) were compared to the single stressor (drought). The response to combinations of individual stress factors is therefore not a mere addition of the partial stress responses, but rather represents a new quality of response. We interpret this finding in a model, where the output to signaling molecules is not determined by their abundance per se, but qualitatively depends on their adequate integration into an adaptive signaling network. This output generates a systemic signal that will determine the quality of the shoot response to local concentrations of ions.

Publikation

Otto, M., Naumann, C., Brandt,W., Wasternack, C. & Hause,B. Activity regulation by heteromerization of Arabidopsis allene oxide cyclase family members. Plants 5, 3, (2016) DOI: 10.3390/plants5010003

Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles.

Publikation

Wasternack, C. & Hause, B. OPDA-Ile – a new JA-Ile-independent signal? Plant Signaling & Behavior 11, e125364600, (2016) DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2016.125364

AbstractExpression takes place for most of the jasmonic acid (JA)-induced genes in a COI1- dependent manner via perception of its conjugate JA-Ile in the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous genes and processes, which are preferentially induced COI1-independently by the precursor of JA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). After recent identification of the Ile-conjugate of OPDA, OPDA-Ile, biological activity of this compound could be unequivocally proven in terms of gene expression. Any interference of OPDA, JA, or JA-Ile in OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression could be excluded by using different genetic background. The data suggest individual signaling properties of OPDA-Ile. Future studies for analysis of an SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor-independent route of signaling are proposed.

Publikationen in Druck

Klopotek, Y., Franken, P., Klaering, H.-P., Fischer, K., Hause, B., Hajirezaei, M.-R. & Druege, U. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings Plant Sci. 243, 10-22, (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.11.001

AbstractThe contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation.

Publikation

Arnold, M. D., Gruber, C., Floková, K., Miersch, O., Strnad, M., Novák, O., Wasternack, C. & Hause, B. The recently identified isoleucine conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic acid is partially active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic acid-specific gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana PLoS ONE 11, e0162829, (2016) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162829

Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile.

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